Diverse group of small organic substances that have varied functions.
Vitamins are essential for what?
For health and normal cell division and are needed in small quantities provided in the diet as the human body can generally not produce them.
RDA (recommended dietary amount)
Amount of selected nutrients considered adequate to meet established needs of healthy people.
A condidtion produced by the ingestion of excessive amounts of viamins, commonly associated with execssive intake of vitamins A and/or D.
The level that must be reached in which a substance begins to be excreted by the kidneys.
Naturally occuring inorganic substance found in the human body.
How may distinct minerals are found in the human body? And how many are essential to health?
19 distinct minerals and 13 essential to health.
The sum of all biochemical reactions that occur within a cell.
What does metabolism include?
The building up and breaking down of macromolecules.
The absence of one or more vitamins in the body.
How are vitamins classified?
Based upon their solubility into two distinct groups: fat-soluble and water-soluble.
Fat-soluble vitamins are insoluble when?
Insoluble in the water environment of the bloodstream.
Examples of fat-soluble vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Excess what is generally stored in the human body fat (adipose tissue) instead of being excreted in the urine?
Excess fat-soluble vitamins.
Human body fat.
Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed where?
In the small intestine and dissovle in the blood plasma.
Examples of water-soluble vitamins
Vitamin C and the B complex vitamins [B₁ (Thiamine), B₂ (Riboflavin, B₃ (Niacin), B₅ (Pyridoxine), B9 (Folate), and B12 (Cobalamin)].
What can occur with water-soluble vitamins, though it is associated with chronic consumption of megadoses?
Fat-soluble vitamins that are often called retinol.
Fat-soluble vitamin that has several active forms; sometimes reffered to as calciferol or calcitriol.
Group of fat-soluble vitamins that are sometimes called tocopherols.
Larege amounts of vitamin E are found where?
Large amounts are found in cereal, green plants, and vegetable oils as well as animal products like liver, eggs and milk.
Group of fat-soluble vitamins found in many green, leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter and eggs.
Water-soluble vitamin often referred to as Thiamine or Thiamin.
Where are B₁ vitamins found?
In yeasts, ham/pork, liver, peas, nuts, cereals and milk.
Water-soluble vitamin often referred to as Riboflavin.
Where are B₂ vitamins found?
In liver, eggs, milk, kidney, heart, green vegetables, dried yeasts and enriched cereals and breads.
Water-soluble vitamin typically referred to as niacin or nicotinic acid.
Where are B₃ vitamins found?
In protein rich foods like liver, yeast, lean meats, fish and poultry.
Water-soluble vitamins typically reffered to as pyridoxine.
Where are B₆ vitamins found?
In most foods, especially in protein rich foods like liver, yeast, lean meats, fish and poultry.
Water-soluble vitamins typically reffered to as folate or folic acid.
Where are B9 vitamins found?
In green vegetables, liver and yeast.
Water-soluble vitamin sometimes reffered to as extrinsic fctor or cobalamin, the latter as it contains the metal cobalt.
What is the primary source in humans for vitamin B12?
Involves the bacterial production in the intestinal tract.
Water-soluble vitamin sometimes reffered to as ascorbic acid.
Where is vitamin C found?
In abundance in citrus fruits and some fresh vegetables.
Minerals are _____.
What happens to minerals in a water environment?
They have an ionic charge.
How are minerals typically classified?
Based upon the amount present in the human body.
Vitamin deficiency is the absence of one or more vitamins in the human body due to what?
(1)A poor diet (2)The inefficient absorption of vitamins
A syndrome characterized by general muscle weakness, peripheral nerve damage, edema and heart failure (severe case of Vitamin B₁ deficiency).
Involves inflammation of many nerves simultaneously.
Functions of B₁ vitamins
(1)Essential for normal carbohydrate and protein metabolism (2)Essential for growth.
Functions of Vitamin K
Promotes blood clotting by increasing the synthesis of several coagulation proteins by the liver (prothrombin bein gthe most important).
Function of Vitamin E in humans
Unknown (appears to have a role as an antioxidant preventing cellular damage from free radicals)
Functions of Vitamin E in animals
Has a key role in normal reproduction, muscular developement and red blood cell stability.
Functions of Vitamin D
(1)Promotes growth and maintenance of bone (2)Certain forms can serve as a hormone important to regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis.
Functions of Vitamin A
(1)Critical for normal vision (2)Growth and maintenance of healthy epithelial tissue and bone.
Functions of B₂ vitamins
(1)Required for the synthesis of essential coenzymes involved in energy metabolism (2)Essential for normal growth.
Functions of B₃ vitamins
(1)Required for the synthesis of essential coenzymes involved in energy metabolism (2)Helps release energy from nutrients (3)Essential for normal growth.
Functions of B₆ vitamins
Metabolism of proteins and their precursor amino acids.
Functions of B9 vitamins
Important component in the synthesis of DNA, amino acids, and red blood cells (cooperatively works with vitamin B12).
Functions of B12 vitamins
(1)Growth and division of all cells, especially red blood cells (2)Essential component in the synthesis of nucleic acids (3)Supports the health of the nervous system (4)Activity is associated with vitamin B9.
Functions of Vitamin C
(1)Essential for the synthesis and maintenance of the protein colagen and othe connective tissue (2)Necessary to maintain the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes (3)Helps maintain capillaries and has antioxidant activity.
A disease associated with general weakness, anemia, swollen and bleeding gums, epithelial hemorrhages, and loose teeth.
A disease state associated with 4 Ds (-Diarrhea, -Dermatitis, -Dementia, -Death).
Vitamin A deficiency
Night blindness, dry and pimply skin (toad-like).
Vitamin D deficiency
Rickets (children), Osteomalacia (adults).
Vitamin E deficiency
Vitamin K deficiency
Delayed clotting times, most common in newborns.
Vitamin B₁ deficiency
Beriberi and polyneuritis
Vitamin B₂ deficiency
Skin, eye, tongue disorders, and dermatitis.
Vitamin B₃ deficeincy
Pellagra and gastrointestinal problems.
Vitamin B₆ deficiency
Disorders in the nervous system and skin; can cause convulsions, kidney stones, lethargy and mental retardation.
Vitamin B9 deficiency
Impaired normal cell division and retards growth, reduced red blood cell levels and potentially anemia, birth defects in the embryo.
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Primarily results in anemia and neurological disorders; absorption in the intestines requires interaction with a protein called intrinsic factor (IF)...absence of the IF protein results in pernicious anemia.
Vitamin C deficiency
Produces scurvy, poor bone and wound healing.
Examples of abundant minerals
Sodium, potassium, chloride; Calcium and phosphorus; Iron; Magnesium.
Examples of trace minerals
Iodine, copper and zinc.
Trace minerals are present in the body in _____?
In very limited amounts.
What are the major electrolytes found in the body?
Sodium, potassium and chloride.
_____ and _____ stores are primarily found in the extracellular fluid while _____ is located in the cytosol (intracellular environment).
Sodium and Chloride; Potassium.
Which minerals are important structural components of bones and teeth?
Calcium and Phosphorus
What mineral is crticial to normal muscle activity?
What mineral is an integral part of ATP and the nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)?
What mineral is the integral component to the oxygen-carrying protein molecules hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb)?
A deficiency in what mineral can result in anemia?
What mineral activates over 300 enzymes and also forms a complex with ATP?
What mineral is essential in the synthesis of thyroid hormones that regulate he body's metabolic rate?
A deficiency in what mineral can result in Goiter and hypothyroidism?
Which minerals activate many enzymes important to a healthy metabolism?
Copper and Zinc
enlarged thyroid gland