ArtHist102 - SP2012 - Italy in the 15th century

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BSU Art History 102 - Western Art Spring 2012 Study Guide from "Italy in the 15th century"

TEST INFO:

Only info past the first quiz!!!
YAY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=))))))))))
=)
=^)
=)

and the essay handout. =P

Artist: Bernardo Rossellino
Title: Tomb of Leonardo Bruni
Date: 1444
Notes: (not sure if this is on test 2..)

International Style
(not sure if this is on test 2..)

* Common in the courts of Europe (Italy and France)
A style of 14th- and 15th-century painting begun by Simone Martini. This style appealed to the aristocracy because of its brilliant color, lavish costume, intricate ornament, and themes involving splendid processions of knights and ladies.

Perspective

Portraying a 3-d scene on a 2-d plane

Perspective:

* Empirical/Intuitive - Observation of the world around us
* Linear/Mathematical - vanishing points, horizon line, converging lines
* Atmospheric - Objects in background get fuzzier as they recede into the distance like the haze seen on a landscape.

Artist: Donatello
Title: St. Mark (from San Michele, Florence)
Date: c. 1411-1413
Notes:
* Linen Guild
- Classical influences in drapery and Contrapposto
- Perspective shown in body proportions

Artist: Nanni di Banco
Title: Four Crowned Saints (from San Michele, Florence)
Date: c. 1414-1416
Notes:
* Stone & Wood guild
- Interacting group
-- Protruding into OUR space by stepping out of the plain

Contrapposto

A style of Greek sculpture where people are depicted standing and leaning so that the person's weight is being put on one side. People are depicted with their bodies curved like an "S"
* adds drama to the scene

Foreshortening

to shorten an object to make it look as if it extends backward into space
* Object at an angle to the picture plain.

Leon Battista Alberti
"On Painting"
1435

- Book about linear perspective that became a manual for artists.
- Knowledge became more widely learned, instead of something passed down by word of mouth from master to student.

Artist: Masaccio
Title: Holy Trinity
Date: 1428
Notes:
* Linear Perspective
* Patrons painted into the artwork (two lower individuals furthest to the edges)
* Mixing of column orders to give tribute to old styles.

Corinthian & Ionic Order (Capitals)
* rounded tops = Ionic
* leafed/flower tops = Corinthian

Artist: Masaccio
Title: Brancacci Chapel - Expulsion
Date: 1425
Notes:
* Nudes usually used for HEROIC presentation
-- Ancient Past shown by how bodies are covered

Artist: Masaccio
Title: Brancacci Chapel - Tribute Money
Date: 1425
Notes:
* 3 scenes in one space
* Characters repeated multiple times w/in the image
** Linear Perspective (seen in architecture)
** Atmospheric Perspective (seen in mountains)
** Foreshortening (seen in arms especially)

Catasto

New system of taxation - listed assets in writing, formed basis of taxation. Previously only taxed by income.

Chiaroscuro, Modeling

* Strong contrast between light and dark areas in modeling (Light-to-Dark) - as seen in the tax collectors legs in Masaccio's Tribute Money

Atmospheric Perspective

the illusion of depth and distance created by using the weather in a landscape and dull, pale colors with hazy details in the background of a painting.

Artist: Filippo Brunalleschi
Title: Hospital of Innocents
Date: 1419
Notes: - not expected to know

Artist: Filippo Brunalleschi
Title: Dome of Florence Cathedral
Date: 1420-1436
Notes:
* Ribs used to distribute weight (double ribbing - interior and exterior)
* Double Shell'd dome
* Herringbone pattern brick-work on interior ceiling.
** Public Architecture

Artist: Michelozzo di Bartolommeo
Title: Palazzo Medici-Ricciardi (outside)
Date: c. 1444
Notes:
* Institutional feel - very plain & imposing - strength and solidity.
* Rustication used to give feel of SOLID
** Private architecture

Artist: Michelozzo di Bartolommeo
Title: Palazzo Medici-Ricciardi (inside)
Date: c. 1444
Notes:
* Very inviting (compared to outside)
* Arches and columns give renascence feel (quiet, peaceful, private)
* Corinthian order on columns
** Repetition of design
** Private architecture

Rustication

Heavy stonework with a surface left rough, or with deeply channelled joints, used principally on Renaissance buildings - principally used on ground-floor of buildings.

Artist: Donatello
Title: David
Date: c. 1440-1460
Notes:
* Bronze
* First life-sized nude free-standing bronze sculpture (controposto pose)
* Believed to be commissioned by the Medici family
~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Donatello
Title: Gattamelata
Date: c. 1445-1450
Notes:
* Bronze
~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Sandro Botticelli
Title: Portrait of Youth
Date: c. 1480's
Notes:
* Portrait of a known individual (the sitter)
-- Commemorate a person (marriage, death, etc.)
* Humanism connection - showing importance of the individual.
* 3/4 view, compared to older Profile view
-- more prevalent for men than women
-- more personal instead of 'statuesque'

~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Domenico Ghirlandaio
Title: Giovanna Tornabuoni (?)
Date: c. 1488
Notes:
* Oil and Tempera panel
* Portrait of a known individual (the sitter)
-- Commemorate a person (marriage, death, etc.)
* Humanism connection - showing importance of the individual.
* Profile view predominant for women
-- women expected to be virtuous and chase
--- no eye-contact viewed as passive for women


~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Sandro Botticelli
Title: Birth of Venus
Date: c. 1482
Notes:
* Tempera on Canvas
- made this way for possible mobility/display in multiple areas.
- Not a permanent piece
- Medici commissioned painting
-- intellectual & sensual (entertainment) values.
* Idealized style
~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Leonardo da Vinci
Title: Virgin of the Rocks
Date: c. 1483
Notes:
* Oil on panel (Paris, Louvre)

~~High Renaissance~~

High Renaissance (1480-1520)

A time period that was the final stage of Renaissance art between 1480 & 1520 marked by the increased importance of Rome as a cultural center. Three artists, da Vinci, Raphael, & Michelangelo, dominated with their work. The period was also characterized with idealization of nature

Sfumato
~~High Renaissance~~

Italian for "Smokey" - UNIQUE TO OIL PAINT
Type of Glaze that gives a smoke-like haziness that subtly softens outlines in paintings - particularly applied to paintings of Leonardo da Vinci and Correggio

Artist: Leonardo da Vinci
Title: Last Supper, Milan
Date: c. 1495-98
Notes:
*Oil Paint over Dry Plaster
* Groupings of 3 (people, windows)
* Very geometric in design
- Flow and calm
~~High Renaissance in Rome~~

Artist: Leonardo da Vinci
Title: Mona Lisa
Date: c. 1503-05
Notes:
* Oil on Wood
* Portrait of a known person
- Elements of Humanism
-- Human figure, landscape
* 3/4 profile of a woman
- compared to strict profiles of women in the past.
-- looking directly at us
~~High Renaissance in Rome~~

Artist: Donato Bramante
Title: Tempietto
Date: c. 1502-03
Notes:
* very small building commissioned
* Commemorating death of St. Peter
** Mixing of classical and modern technology
-- round bldgs were heroic/political/holy type of persons.
-- Doric columns
-- Topped by a dome
~~High Renaissance~~

Doric Order

Julius II

Pope of Rome in 16th century
- wanted to restore Rome's ancient Glory
-- Patronized art to help restore the glory.
- Build up power of the Pope
- Build up personal grandeur & power

Artist: Donato Bramante
Title: Plan for New Saint Peter's
Date: c. 1505
Notes:
* Julius II tore down the original, and re-built
* This is the basic outline/plan
* Center of the Christian church
* In the shape of a Greek Cross
* Use of DOME architecture
~~High Renaissance~~

Greek Cross

All the arms are equal in length
* Latin = one arm longer than others (crucifix)

Artist: Michelangelo
Title: David
Date: c. 1501-04
Notes:
* Classical art & Humanism
- Very idealized (perfect/muscled) human male figure
-- not necessarily STRONG, but more perfectly depicted
- Contrapposto
* Originally displayed in front of the city hall
~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Michelangelo
Title: Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes
Date: c. 1508-12
Notes:
* Designed/developed his own scaffolding to paint such a large area
* All Fresco (paint on wet plaster)
~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Michelangelo
Title: Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes
Date: c. 1508-12
Notes:
* Designed/developed his own scaffolding to paint such a large area
* All Fresco (paint on wet plaster)
* Entire ceiling leading towards the coming of Christ
~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Michelangelo
Title: Creation of Adam (Sistine Chapel)
Date: c. 1508-12
Notes:
* Subjects larger, so people on the ground can get a better view of the scene.
- background elements reduced
- main figures taking up most of space
~~High Renaissance~~

Artist: Raphael
Title: Madonna of the Meadow
Date: c. 1505
Notes:
* Oil on panel
* Smaller devotional paintings
* Humanism - closer feel to the subjects, they're real.. not necessarily heavenly/totally holy
* Early in Raphael's Career
~~High Renaissance cont.~~

Artist: Raphael
Title: School of Athens, Stanza della Signatura
Date: c. 1509-11
Notes:
* Fresco
* Perfect linear perspective
* Grand Scale
* Use of known figures w/in the scene
- Humanism again by acknowledging the importance of the historic figures
- Later Part of Raphael's Career
~~High Renaissance cont.~~

Artist: Giorgione
Title: Tempest
Date: c. 1505-10
Notes:
* Oil on Canvas
* Grand scale art
* Mystery with image, not sure what is going on, or when this was.
- subject matter describable
- historical context unknown
* Making up subject matter.
~~High Renaissance cont.~~

Mannerism

Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
* Artificial Looking
* Highly Elegant
* Odd gestures/positions
** Multiple interpretations of the images
* Church not the only patron any more

Artist: Parmigianino
Title: Madonna with the Long Neck
Date: 1535
Notes:
* Mannerism style
- space compressed, elongated people, odd gestures, artificial objects (vase)
- man in background: too small for where it sits in the image.
- column in the background has no purpose

~~Mannerism~~

Artist: Bronzino
Title: Venus, Cupid, Folly, Time
Date: 1546
Notes:
* Very vague/ambiguous image
- image possibly for party/entertainment
~forbidden love (pleasurable/unsavory)
* pale skin = privileged/elite
- also marble-like, touching back to classical past
~~Mannerism~~

Artist: Michelangelo
Title: Last Judgement, Sistine Chapel
Date: 1534-1541
Notes:
* Traditional subject matter done in mannerism style.
- Compressed Space
- Contorted positions of people
~~Mannerism~~

Artist: Jan Van Eyck
Title: Ghent Altarpiece
Date: 1432
Notes:
* Oil on Panel
* Located in Ghent
* Highly complex - multiple panels
- Dual Registers (horizontal scenes)
-- Incredible detail in each and every scene
* Designed to be displayed both open and closed
- closed view just as intricate
- Closed view painted with the Grisaille technique
-- depicts sculpture by painting with mono-chromatic gray's
~~Northern Europe in the 15th Century~~

Polyptych, Triptych

Poly: Multi-Paneled work of art
Trip: Three-Paneled work of art

Grisaille

a painting done in neutral shades of gray to simulate the look of sculpture

Artist: Jan Van Eyck
Title: Arnolfini Portrait
Date: 1434
Notes:
* Oil on Panel

* Signed image - above mirror, center of the scene
~~Northern Europe in the 15th Century~~

Artist: The Limbourg Brothers
Title: Very Rich Hours - January
Date: 1413-1436
Notes:
* Watercolor Wash
* Illuminated Manuscript
* Glorifying his wealth and parties and friends

~~Northern Europe in the 15th Century~~

Artist: The Limbourg Brothers
Title: Very Rich Hours - October
Date: 1413-1436
Notes:
* Watercolor Wash
* Illuminated Manuscript
* glorifying holdings

~~Northern Europe in the 15th Century~~

Illuminated Manuscript

A luxurious handmade book with painted illustrations and decorations. Images appear to have a glowing feel to them.

Artist: Rogier van der Weyden
Title: Desposition
Date: 1435
Notes:
* Oil on panel
* Very-up-to-date costumes (of the time)
- designed to make people relate this event to every-day life.
* Skull and bones in relation to death
~~Northern Europe in the 15th Century~~

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