potentially interbreeding organisms
all potentially interbreeding organisms within a defined geographical area
group of interacting organisms for different species in the same area.
community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as a ecological unit.
energy flow, nutrient exchange, and movement of organisms across ecosystems.
the portion of the earth in the atmosphere capable of supporting life.
the study of relationships among the living (biotic) and between organisms and their physical environment (abiotic)
Coined the term ecology
species responses to the environment, answers the why questions.
population size, speciation, evolution, competition energy allocation.
species diversity, competition, succession
Biogeochemical (ecosystem) ecology
nutrient cycling, primary productivity, decomposition
landscape,global and urban ecology
provide information within a natural context
provides information within a control setting
the study of pollen grains and spores
First two urban long term ecological urban sites
Baltimore and pheonix
E.P and H.T. Odom
Fathers of modern ecology
John J. Bartram
America's first naturalist who described the ecosystems he encountered here.
Alex Von Hombolt
Explorer in the 1800's, who first noticed there were ozones of vegetation in South America due to temperature.
First woman ecologist, recognized that technology and development were affecting the environment.
First person to understand plant succession
Father of plant ecology, wrote the book on research methods in ecology
E.A. Bridge and C. Juday
Fathers of American limnology, studied small lakes
First to teach an ecology course in 1903 at the University Of Chicago
coined the term "ecosystem" in 1935
First person to "pioneer" ecosystem studies concerning community concepts.
Father of animal ecology
introduced statistics to ecology and changed the way we view our world around us
pioneer in the study of birds
the study of how organisms in a particular area are influenced by factors such as climate, soils, predators, competitors and evolutionary history.
The foundation of terrestrial ecosystems.
Complex mixture of living and non-living material upon which most terrestrial life depends.
organic layer,dark color, contains loose, somewhat fragmented plant litter. Lots of plant decay
Has material from O layer. Clay, iron, aluminum, silicates and soluble organic matter are gradually leeched from A horizon.
depositional horizon, banding patterns. Layer in the best condition.
Weathered parent material. Bedrock. Not modified.
zone of maximum leeching. Characterized by clay loss
zone of maximum accumulation
all material that sits above the bedrock. Horizons A-C
Material above the C horizon. Stands for true soil
Designated by lower case letters
stands for fibric sub layer
fibric sub layer
slightly decomposed organic material
stands for hemic sub layer
Hemic sub layer
about half the material is decomposed.
sapric sub layer
Sapric sub layer
organic layer is the most highly decomposed
Soils about the same age, derived from similar parent material occurring under similar climate conditions, having different characteristics because of relief and drainage.
developed soils in wet condition
soils made up of equal amounts of sand,silt and clay particles. (Typically the most fertile soils)
young soils, found in climatic soils all over the world. No diagnostic characteristics.
made up of organic materials found in wetlands. Always organic and young soils. Salt-marshes and bogs
does not have a B horizon. Found in humid and sub humid regions
soils that come from volcanic ejectum. Very nutreint rich.
swelling clay soils. Medium to high rainfall areas. Have a high base cation
found in medium to high rainfall areas. High climate, low base cation and have a spodic horizon accumulation of organic material and aluminum and iron oxides. Borreal forests
low rainfall, lack in O horizons, can be high in base cations (Desert)
molic horizon, dark soils of grassland, high in base cations, medium rainfall. (steppe)
mildly acidic underneath broad leaf forests, high to medium base cations, medium rainfall (Savanna)
acidic soils, forested, humid tropical-sub tropical, ow in base cations, medium rainfall. (forests)
high rain, warm humid environments, exposed to extreme weathering, oxic horizons, high rainfall. low base cations (Rain-forests)
Medium for plant growth
Recycling system for nutrients and organic wastes.
System for water supply and purification
Habitat for soil organisms
material above the c horizon.
climate has an influence on soil development. Precipitation and temperature
organisms effect soil development
relief (topography) where soil deveolps
parent material. What is the soil developing from?
Soil development takes time
What drives climate?
What percent of sunlight is reflected back into space?
What is this process called?
How much sunlight is absorbed by the biosphere?
What happens to absorbed solar energy?
photosynthesis.....absorbed as heat
due to the earth's spin
Breaks up air circulation and produces trade winds
What causes ocean currents?
air currents,absorbed solar energy by water, continental positions
What causes regional climate?
influenced by atmospheric circulation, ocean currents, topography
measure of water in the atmosphere/water vapor
Is seasonal distribution of rainfall more important than the average?
causes moisture landen air to move up.
What is air cooling as it rises?
The timing of..... w/ respect to temp is more important than the what?
Climate diagram was designed by?
What changes as you move from west to east?
What did walter heinrick do?
Design the precipitation and temperature diagram
oxisols and andisols
inceptisols, aridisols, alphasols
organisms that migrate up the mountain because of increasing temperature.
climate on a local scale
within 1m of the ground
climate surrounding individuals
climate surrounding organisms
percent of freshwater
percent of salt water
What kind of water is more fresh than salt?
rivers and streams are
Are pressure gradients greater in aquatic systems?
Do aquatics environments show less or more temperature variation than terrestrial?
Percent of oceans and sea om the earth?
the zone that extends from the coast to the margin of the continental shelf. 200 m deep
zone that lies beyond the continental shelf
Surface layer that extends to 200 m in depth
zone from 200 to 1000 m in depth
zone from 1000 to 4000 m in depth
layer from 4000 to 6000 m in depth
deepest part of the ocean
habitats on the bottom of the ocean and other aquatic environments.
which zone receives most of the light? How much light?
change in temperature
change in pressure
change in salinity
What makes up the intertidal zone?
supratidal, upper tidal, middle tidal, lower tidal and subtidal zones.
Above the water
covered least by seawater
upper tidal zone
covered with seawater more than upper zone
middle tidal zone
least exposure to atmosphere
always covered by water only exposed by storms and tsunami's
two low tides and two high tides each day
single low and single high tide a day
Does the sun or the moon have a greater pull on tides?
What are spring tides?
maximum tidal fluctuation. When the moon and the sun are in alignment. (full/new moon)
What are neap tides?
Minimum tidal fluctuation. When the moon and the sun are against each other. (first and third quarter moons)
What are estuaries?
mix of fresh and saltwater
What do estuaries have?
Variable currents, lots of oxygen, high light, nutrient rich, lots of micro-niches and high faunal diversity.
of the 3% of freshwater, how much is ice and how much is water?
2.25% ice and 0.75% water
Is water a renewable source?
How many people can water support?
organic matter coming from outside f the system falling into the stream.
organic matter generated in the stream
Is the wetted channel flooded all year round or once?
all year round
Is the active channel flooded all year round or once?
at least once
roots of trees growing in the riparian zone, that draw water from groundwater.
transition between the aquatic environment of the river and upland terrestrial environment.
transition between areas of surface water flow and groundwater.
area containing groundwater, below the hyporheic zone
lake never destratifies
lakes destratifies twice a year
lakes destrtifies twice a day
What is the epilimnion?
encompasses surface layer of lakes
What is the metalimnion?
Below epilimnion. known as thermocline
What is the hypolimnion?
Cold dark waters under the metalimnion.
the shallow waters along the lakes shore, where rooted aquatic plants may grow.
open lake, beyond the littoral zone
Fine particulate organic matter
course particulate organic matter
what grows in the Hypernueston of a lake?
where algae grows
What is epineuston?
where water striders are
lakes of low nutrient, abundant oxygen, and low primary production.
high nutrient content and high biological production.
What is pangea?
when all the continents were one
piece of plastic that doesn't biodegrade
What is a linmologist?
person who studies rivers, lakes and streams.
mixture of plants and animals
oceanic circulation pattern that transports warm water from the equator to the pole.
What is acclimation?
reversible change in morphology and/or physiology with an individual in response to a change in the environment.
What is adaptation?
evolutionary response at the population level, involves changes in gene references. Morphological, physiological and behavioral
What are hypertrophide lentisols?
pores that allow for gas exchange (mangrove photo)
what is diaheliotrophic?
track the sun to gain energy
What is paraheliotropic?
They move to avoid the rays of the sun.
define latent heat of vaporization
the large amount of heat absorbed by water as it evaporates.
define latent heats of fusion
the heat energy that water gives up to its environment as it freezes.
The ability to acclimate is an ....
transfer of heat between objects that physically touch
heat flow between a solid body and moving solid
all objects above absolute 0, that give off electromagnetic radiation.
Energy moves from the what to the what?
warmer to the colder
Thermal neutral zone
the range of environmental temperatures over which the metabolic rate of a homeothermic animal does not change
body temperature fluctuates with environmental temperatures.
body temperature remains constant when environmental temperature fluctuates
maintains body temperature solely by gaining heat from the environment
can maintain body temperature by the metabolic generation of heat.
quickly generate heat
leads to homothermy
exploit range of habitats
high energy cost
lower limit to body size
low energy cost
no minimum body size
colonize areas with limited resources
regulate body temperature through behavior
Two type of extreme avoiding temp techniques
Behavior and physiology
Name different behaviors
Name different physiologies
counter current exchange
state of reduced metabolism, lasting several months
state of low metabolic rate and lowered body temperature.
Mixture of both behavioral and pyhsiological
to be dormant in the summer
A period of inactivity or rest, during which development is suspended.
How do plants maintain temperature?
dormancy,stomata control.leaf size, solar tracking, pubescene
an organism able to tolerate a wide range of temperatures.
high specific heat
the amount of heat water can absorb without changing temperature.
It takes how many cal of heat to raise 1 cubic cm up 1 degree C?
Organisms that live and thrive at temperatures below 20 C
a term applied to organisms that tolerate or require high temperature environments