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Balkanization

The fragmentation of a region into smaller, often hostile political units.

Break-of-Bulk

A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.

Central Business District

The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.

Centrifugal Forces

A term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a country-such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.

Conurbation

General term used to identify a large multimetropolitan complex formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas.

Devolution

The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.

Entrepôt

A place, usually a port city, where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; A break-of-bulk point.

Estuary

The widening mouth of a river as it reaches the sea; Land subsidence or a rise in sea level has overcome the tendency to form a delta.

Exclave

A bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.

Four Motors of Europe

Rhône--Alpes, Baden-Wurttemberg, Catalonia, and Lombardy.

Hegemony

The political dominance of a country (or even a region) by another country.

Indo-European Language Family

The major world language family that dominates the European geographic realm.

Industrial Revolution

The term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing and urbanization that resulted from technological innovations and greater specialization in late 18 century Europe.

Irredentism

A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nationals living in a neighboring state.

Land Hemisphere

The half of the globe containing the greatest amount of land surface, centered on western Europe.

Landlocked Location

An interior state surrounded by land.

Local Functional Specialization

A hallmark of Europe's economic geography that later spread to many other parts of the world, whereby particular people in particular places concentrate on the production of particular goods and services.

Metropolis

Urban agglomeration consisting of a (central) city and its suburban ring.

Nation-State

A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity.

Physiography

The total physical geography of a place; Includes all of the natural features on the Earth's surface, including landforms, climate, soils, vegetations, and bodies of water.

Shatter Belt

Region caught between stronger, colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals.

Site

The internal locational attributes of an urban center, including its local spatial organization and physical setting.

Situation

The external locational attributes of an urban center; Its relative location or regional position with reference to other non-local places.

Supranationalism

A venture involving three or more states-political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives.

Transferability

The capacity to move a good from one place to another at a bearable cost; The case with which a commodity may be transported

World City

The highest-ranking urban centers of globalization with financial, high-technology, communications, engineering, and related industries reflecting the momentum of their long-term growth and agglomeration.

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