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The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to:

Exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events.

The false consensus effect refers to the tendency to:

Exaggerate the extend to which others agree with us.

The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by:

Operational Definition

Knowing the difference between an experimental condition and a control condition is most relevant to understanding the nature of:

Independent Variables

In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. This research is an example of:

Experiment

The healing power of positive expectations is best illustrated by:

Placebo Effect

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
A) -0.12
B) -0.99
C) -0.50
D) +0.25
E) +1.00

A

When Mr. Adams calculated his students' algebra test scores, he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of these two students?

Mean

An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high self-esteem tend to picture God as kind and loving, whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as angry. The researchers concluded that the children's self-esteem had apparently influenced their views of God. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of:

Assuming that correlation proves causation.

In an experiment to determine the effects of exercise on motivation, exercise is the:

Independent Variable

A friend majoring in anthropology is critical of psychological research because it often ignores the influence of culture on thoughts and actions. You point out that:

There is very little evidence that cultural diversity has a significant effect on specific behaviors and attitudes.

When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to:

Note the range and size of the scale values

Mr. and Mrs. Klostreich have six children aged 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, and 16. The mean age of the Klostreich children is:

8

In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a:

Placebo

If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are:

Negatively correlated

To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. In order to reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of:

Random Assignment

In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana employed the technique of:

Random Sampling

The American Psychological Association and British Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging investigators to:

Explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed

A majority of respondents in a national survey agreed that "classroom prayer should not be allowed in public schools." Only 33 percent of respondents in a similar survey agreed that "classroom prayer in public schools should be banned." These divergent findings best illustrate the importance of:

Wording Effects

In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is:

$10,000

The concept of control is important in psychological research because:

Experimental control allows researchers to study the influence of one or two independent variables on a dependent variable while holding other potential influences constant.

Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of:

The Double-Blind Procedure

A correlation coefficient is a measure of the:

Direction and strength of the relationship between two variables.

Because she had a serious traffic accident on Friday the 13th of last month, Felicia is convinced that all Friday the 13ths will bring bad luck. Felicia's belief best illustrates:

...

Professor Woo noticed that the distribution of students' scores on her last biology test had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that the:

Students' scores tended to be very similar to each other.

A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n):

Operational Definition

In order to describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats, researchers are most likely to make use of:

Naturalistic Observation

A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates:

Critical Thinking

Dr. Donelian wants to reduce his students' perception that psychological experiments merely document the obvious. His best strategy would be to ask the students to:

Predict the outcomes of experiments before they are told the actual results.

During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is:

14

In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State University are considered to be a(n):

Population

The complete set of cases from which samples may be drawn is called a(n):

Population

The most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means of:

Experimental Research

Alexandra is told that research supports the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self-esteem. Belinda is told that the esteem-enhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by research. Both women would consider the findings to be common sense. This best illustrates the power of:

Hindsight Bias

Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda's experience best illustrates:

Overconfidence

Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of events?

Standard Deviation

During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was:

9

In an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug, research participants who receive a placebo are participating in the ________ condition.

Control

An awareness of extensive cultural differences in attitudes and values is most helpful for avoiding:

Operational Definitions

Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?

Correlation Coefficient

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