The most significant transformation of the human condition was a result of
the agricultural revolution
An important series of caves with paintings from the Paleolithic period is located in
As currently interpreted, Paleolithic animal paintings could not be described as
Which of the following describes the Venus of Willendorf?
It is a small Paleolithic figurine of a woman
Which of the following animals appears less frequently in the Lascaux cave paintings?
In style and concept the mural of the Deer Hunt from Çatal Höyük is a world apart from the wall paintings of the Paleolithic period. Which of the following statements best supports this assertion?
the regular appearance of the human figure and the coherent groupings
Which of the following works of art was created first?
One of the suggested purposes for the cave paintings at Altamira is thought to have been:
insurance for the survival of the herd
The convention of representing animals' horns in twisted perspective in cave paintings or allowing the viewer to see the head in profile and the horns from the front is termed __________.
Megalithic monuments are found throughout Europe, but which monument type is almost entirely limited to Britain?
huge stones arranged in a circle
The oldest planned town excavated so far is located at which of the following areas?
Agriculture became established in three Near Eastern regions: ancient Palestine, Iran, and Anatolia. By 8000 BCE, Jericho had undergone spectacular development as its wealth grew. Which argument appears most valid for the fortification of Jericho?
It was a promotion of a powerful merchant class
The Human with Feline Head was found in _________.
Whatever their purpose, the Ain Ghazal human figure statuettes are different from Paleolithic figures. Which of the following provides the most valid justification for this assertion?
their size and sophisticated technique
Which Paleolithic site used radiocarbon dating to establish its age?
What is a lintel?
beam used to span an opening
Çatal Höyük has a most remarkable mural, a landscape. Which statement best defines the term landscape?
It is a picture of a natural setting in its own right without any narrative content
What is a megalith?
It is a great stone
What is a ground line?
It is the baseline in which figures appear to stand
In the last phase of the Mesolithic period what animal was domesticated?
In the Neolithic period, agriculture and raising stock became humankind's major food sources. Which area transitioned to these activities first?
Ancient Near East
Bull's horns, widely thought to be a symbol of masculine potency, were common motifs found in rooms nominally titled "shrines" even though their functions are uncertain. Where were these rooms located?
What is bitumen?
a tar-like substance
What is a composite view of human representation?
frontal torso, profile head, legs and arms
What is terracotta?
Figures sculpted in the round can be defined as ___________.
Almost all theories regarding Paleolithic animal images have been discredited. Which of the following statements explains this fact?
before the invention of writing, no contemporary explanations could be recorded
Excavations in central Anatolia have shown a flourishing Neolithic culture existed between 7000 and 5000 BCE. Which of the following sites support this statement?
Çatal Höyük and Hacilar
What are bucrania?
Explain the importance of human and animal representation during the Paleolithic period.
This representation went beyond the mere recognition of animals but literally presented them again in different and substitute forms
Evaluate the Makapansgat pebble as an "artwork".
In order for the label "artwork" to apply, the work must be modified by human intervention beyond merely being noticed as reflecting human characteristics
Why is the ivory statuette found at the Hohlenstein-Stadel cave in Germany significant?
It represented something important because the process of manufacturing an ivory figure was a complicated task.
Discuss the importance of the Paleolithic female figures.
It has been suggested that these figures represent the female form whose childbearing capabilities insured the survival of the species rather than specific individuals.
Who discovered the cave paintings at Altamira in Spain?
Don Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola
Explain the importance of the profile view in representing animals in Paleolithic art.
Only the profile view is completely informative of the animals' shapes.
Explain the significance of the Lisbon Congress of Archaeology of 1880.
The professional archaeologists dismissed the cave paintings of Altamira as forgeries. However, later in the century, these skeptics were persuaded that these works were indeed older than they had originally thought.
What is the importance of the Lascaux caves and the wall paintings?
Side by side the two basic approaches to painting and drawing are found.
What assumption has been nullified by the Chauvet cave paintings?
That Paleolithic art "evolved" from simple to more sophisticated representations.
Explain the significance of the Neolithic period.
Humans began to settle in fixed abodes and began to domesticate plants and animals.
Evaluate the difference between the Paleolithic period and the Neolithic period.
The Paleolithic period corresponds roughly to the age of food gathering. The Neolithic period saw the foundation of agriculture and domesticated stock. No longer did the people have to wander the landscape in search of food. Agriculture and domesticated stock provided the principal food sources.
Which region provided the necessary preconditions for the development of agriculture?
The grassy uplands bordering the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia.
Explain the impact that developed village farming had in the Ancient Near East.
Settlers attracted by greater soil fertility and rapidly growing populations moved into the river valleys and deltas of the Tigris and Euphrates. They began to farm and settle into villages, which established the beginnings of civilization.
Evaluate the importance of Jericho to urban development.
It was the first fortified town with a stone tower and wide rock-cut ditch and surrounding wall.
Why is Ain Ghazal important to art history?
A recently discovered cache of plaster statuettes mark the beginning of monumental sculpture in the Ancient Near East.
Describe the Ain Ghazal statuettes.
They are plaster over a core of reeds and twine with bitumen pupils delineating the cowrie shell eyes. The figures also had orange and black hair, clothing, and sometimes, body paint and tattooing.
Describe the differences between Jericho and Çatal Höyük as urban centers and evaluate
their respective plans.
Jericho was a fortified and walled city whereas Çatal Höyük had no streets. Its defense was adjoining houses and no street doors; if enemies breached the exterior wall the defenders had the advantage of a roof top defense.
Explain the importance of the mural painting found at Çatal Höyük.
What is strikingly new is the appearance of the human figure, not only singly but also in large coherent groups in a variety of poses.
Why is Stonehenge significant?
It was developed as a kind of astronomical observatory and was a remarkably accurate solar calendar. It attests to the rapidly developing intellectual powers of Neolithic humans.
Why is this image significant?
Spotted horses and negative handprints (Figure 1-10). There is no doubt these images had significance for the artists. One speculation is these signs are some form of writing or shorthand identifiers of the creating group. The handprint could represent the signature of a cult or community.
How are these images different?
Human with Feline Head (Figure 1-4) and Well Scene (Figure 1-13). They represent three-dimensional and two-dimensional works. Art historians recognize that the Human with Feline Head was important to its creating group. The time and care taken to carve such a work indicates this was an important object for the community. That same importance is also expressed in the well scene. However, the clear differences in execution point to the differences in identities and the possible interpretations.
What is one of the suggested functions of this figure?
Venus of Willendorf (Figure 1-5). It is thought to represent possibly a fertility figure. This assumption is based upon the exaggerated sexuality of the figurine.
How are these images similar?
Two bison (Figure 1-7) and Hall of the Bulls (Figure 1-11). Both show profile views. This was important as this view allowed the animal to be fully realized and visualized.
Why is this image unique?
Deer hunt (Figure 1-17). It represents a coherent group of human figures depicted in various styles of motion and movement.
How is this figure unique?
Human figure (Figure 1-15). It marks the beginnings of monumental sculpture in the Ancient Near East and it also appeared to be ritually buried.
What does this work describe?
Hall of the Bulls (Figure 1-11). Although the animals are portrayed in profile the work is descriptive and can be fully understood visually.
How does this image represent urban design?
Stone tower, Jericho (Figure 1-14). It is a coherent grouping of buildings. The fortifications indicate a structured society. It also represents construction in several phases over the centuries.
Why is this image unique?
Aurochs, horses, and rhinoceroses, Chauvet Cave (Figure 1-12). It represents a change in the analysis of Prehistoric or Paleolithic painting. The aurochs are represented naturalistically and this has shifted assumptions. It supports the theory of a varied approach to conceiving and depicting animals. Twisted perspective, a convention used to represent animal horns, was a norm in cave paintings, but not the universal format for representation.
How are these images different?
Namibia animal painting (Figure 1-3) and Makapansgat pebble (figure 1-2). Namibia animal painting represents carefully rendered forms. The artist has initiated and changed the surface of the work. He or she has introduced a modification to the surface and this conforms to the definition of "artwork." The Makapansgat pebble has had no such change or modification. The appearance of the stone resembles a face, but it was not intentionally modified or changed.