Chem Test 4 Terms

43 terms by KLL 

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Absorption

The incorporation of a molecule into the host molecule

Adsorption

The accumulation of molecules on the surface of a solid or liquid

Digestion

When a precipitate is allowed to stand in the presence of the hot solution from which it was precipitated, the large crystals grow at the expense of the small ones. Process of crystal trying to fix itself

Gravimetric analysis

Process of precipitating something out of solution to measure how much was in soln

Homogeneous precipitation

the precipitating agent is synthesized in the solution rather than added mechanically

Nucleation

small particles come together on dust to form a stable solid

Peptization

occurs when a coagulated precipitate converts back to its original dispersed state

Precipitate

The insoluble solid that forms during the reaction

Saturated solution

Solution contains maximum number of dissolved particles

Supersaturated solution

Solution exceeds the maximum number of dissolved particles.

Anode

on the left; where oxidation occurs

Cathode

on the right; where reduction occurs

Coulomb

SI unit that measures electricity

Ampere

SI unit that measures electrical current; equivalent to 1 C/sec

Current

the flow of electrons in a cell

Potential, Eo

Cell potential is determined by the tendency of the ions to give off or take electrons

Electrode

Either the anode or the cathode; connection between the chemical reaction and the external circuit.

Faraday constant

unit of electricity 96,87 coulombs eq-1

Galvanic/Voltaic cell

Batteries that store energy; spontaneous rxns; produce electrical energy

Electrolytic Cell

Require an external source of energy; nonspontaneous

Half-reaction

the oxidation or reduction component of a redox reaction

Joule

SI unit of energy

Nernst equation

E=E^o- .0592/n log⁡(([C]^c [D]^d)/([A]^a [B]^b ))

Oxidation

loss of electrons

Reduction

gain of electrons

Oxidizing agent

the species that gets reduced

Reducing agent

the species that gets oxidized

Voltmeter

placed between the electrodes to measure the difference in the potentials

Reaction quotient

the relative proportion of products and reactants present in the reaction mixture at some instant of time other than equilibrium.

redox reaction

occurs between a reducing and an oxidizing agent

salt bridge

allows charge transfer through the solutions but prevents mixing of the solutions

standard reduction potential

potential of half reaction used to determine cell potential

Calomel electrode

commonly used reference electrode. Hg | Hg2Cl2

Combination electrode

An electrode that contains both the indicator and the reference electrode

Glass electrode

Good at binding H+ ions and therefore measuring pH

Indicator electrode

potential is determined by the analyte; measures the analyte

Ion-selective electrode

converts the activity of a specific ion into electric potential

Reference electrode

Constant potential; completes the cell but does not respond to the analyte

Junction potential

liquid junction between two dissimilar solutions prevents mixing. salt bridge

Potentiometry

measures the voltage; focuses on low-resistance circuits.

Voltametry

Measures the electrical current; focuses on high-resistance circuits

SCE (saturated calomel electrode)

commonly used reference electrode. Hg | Hg2Cl2 with solid KI

Silver-silver chloride electrode

Ag | AgCl common reference electrode

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