The incorporation of a molecule into the host molecule
The accumulation of molecules on the surface of a solid or liquid
When a precipitate is allowed to stand in the presence of the hot solution from which it was precipitated, the large crystals grow at the expense of the small ones. Process of crystal trying to fix itself
Process of precipitating something out of solution to measure how much was in soln
the precipitating agent is synthesized in the solution rather than added mechanically
small particles come together on dust to form a stable solid
occurs when a coagulated precipitate converts back to its original dispersed state
The insoluble solid that forms during the reaction
Solution contains maximum number of dissolved particles
Solution exceeds the maximum number of dissolved particles.
on the left; where oxidation occurs
on the right; where reduction occurs
SI unit that measures electricity
SI unit that measures electrical current; equivalent to 1 C/sec
the flow of electrons in a cell
Cell potential is determined by the tendency of the ions to give off or take electrons
Either the anode or the cathode; connection between the chemical reaction and the external circuit.
unit of electricity 96,87 coulombs eq-1
Batteries that store energy; spontaneous rxns; produce electrical energy
Require an external source of energy; nonspontaneous
the oxidation or reduction component of a redox reaction
E=E^o- .0592/n log(([C]^c [D]^d)/([A]^a [B]^b ))
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
the species that gets reduced
the species that gets oxidized
placed between the electrodes to measure the difference in the potentials
the relative proportion of products and reactants present in the reaction mixture at some instant of time other than equilibrium.
occurs between a reducing and an oxidizing agent
allows charge transfer through the solutions but prevents mixing of the solutions
standard reduction potential
potential of half reaction used to determine cell potential
commonly used reference electrode. Hg | Hg2Cl2
An electrode that contains both the indicator and the reference electrode
Good at binding H+ ions and therefore measuring pH
potential is determined by the analyte; measures the analyte
converts the activity of a specific ion into electric potential
Constant potential; completes the cell but does not respond to the analyte
liquid junction between two dissimilar solutions prevents mixing. salt bridge
measures the voltage; focuses on low-resistance circuits.
Measures the electrical current; focuses on high-resistance circuits
SCE (saturated calomel electrode)
commonly used reference electrode. Hg | Hg2Cl2 with solid KI
Silver-silver chloride electrode
Ag | AgCl common reference electrode
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