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Questions from Earth Science quiz, Fossils and Topography test

What are fossils?

Preserved remains or traces of animals and plants that lived in the past.

How are fossils formed?

Living things die and are buried in sediment (sand, gravel, dirt, tar, ice, snow). The sediment slowly hardens into rocks and preserve the shape of the organism.

What are 8 fossil types?

Hard part, molds and casts, petrification, amber, mummification, frozen, tar, and trace fossil.

What is a hard part fossil?

Bone, shell wood are preserved as soft parts decomposed.

What is a molds and cast fossil?

Cavity in a rock where an organism was buried decays and leaves a hole that can be filled in with sediment.

What is a petrification fossil?

Minerals fill in and replaced porous spaces.

What is an amber fossil?

Insect preserved in hardened tree sap.

What is a mummification fossil?

Animal remains dry out in a desert.

What is a frozen fossil?

Animals fall into crevice and freezes.

What is a tar fossil?

Animals can get stuck in a pool of tar and get preserved.

What is a trace fossil?

Naturally preserved evidence of an animal's activity such as a footprint, burrow or dung.

What are the 5 types of fossils found in rock?

molds, casts, petrified fossils, carbon films, and trace fossils.

What are 7 ways rock layers form?

Floods, tsunamis, landslides, streams, tornadoes, glaciers, and volcanoes.

How do floods get rock layers to form?

Minerals and sediment gets carried by the water from one place to another.

How do tsunamis get rock layers to form?

They kick up dirt.

How do landslides get rock layers to form?

Moving particles from one place to the next.

How do streams get rock layers to form?

Pulling minerals and dropping them off some place else.

How do tornadoes get rock layers to form?

Picks up stuff and brings it somewhere else.

How do Glaciers get rock layers to form?

Picks up rock particles and moves it then melts.

How do volcanoes get rock layers to form?

Molten rock creates new rocks.

What is the Law of Superposition?

Younger layers of rock are deposited on top of older layers.

How do fossils help us interpret the past?

Fossil records reveal information about plants, animals and environment in the past.

How does a carbon film fossil form?

Sediment covers an organism, the organism evaporates and becomes gasses. Then it escapes and only a thin layer of carbon is left behind.

What 2 things can we learn from fossils?

What the past was like, and what environment organisms lived in.

What is a relative age?

Age compared to the ages of other rocks.

What is absolute age?

Number of years since the rock formed.

What is extrusion?

Lava that hardens on the surface.

What is intrusion?

Magma cools and hardens into a mass of igneous rock.

What is a fault?

Break in Earth's crust.

What is unconformity?

The surface where new rock layers meet a much older rock surface beneath them.

What is index fossil?

Help geologist match rock layers.

Why are index fossils useful?

Tell relative ages of the rock layers in which they occur.

The movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object is called

heat transfer

The light-colored rock that makes up most of the continental crust is

granite

Heat transfer by convection is caused by differences of (blank) and density within a fluid

blank=temperature

A measure of how much mass there is in a volume of substance is

temperature

The (blank) is a layer of rock that forms Earth's outer layer

blank=crust

List the three types of heat transfer

conduction, convection, radiation

A rock that makes up much of the ocean floor is

basalt

Soft layer in the mantle is

asthenosphere

The outer layer of the Earth is the

crust

The uppermost part of the mantle is the

lithosphere

A rock that makes up continental crust is

granite

The force pushing on a surface or area is

pressure

A wave produced by an earthquake is a

seismic wave

What are the names of the two super continents Pangaea split up into

Gondwanaland and Laurasia

What is an example of a body fossil

the skull of a mammoth that fell into a tar pit

What is an example of a trace fossil

a footprint of an extinct animal

What is the term that best describes body fossils

rare

Why are deserts, tar pits, and ice good places to find body fossils?

Bacteria and other decomposes cannot thrive in these environment

In order to form a fossil, an organism must usually (blank) quickly after it dies

blank=be buried

What can you conclude from the fact that so many fossils involve shells, skeletons, and teeth?

These parts decay slower than other body parts

Although a cast fossil looks like an original bone or shell, how is it different?

It is made of rock

A mold fossil is most similar to

an eggshell with no egg inside

On a map, what is the height above sea level of a point on Earth's surface?

Elevation

A geologist finds identical index fossils in a rock layer in the Grand Canyon in Arizona and a rock layer in northern Utah, more than 675 kilometers away. What inferences can she make about the ages of the two rock layers?

The two rock layers are about the same age

A leaf falls into a shallow water and is rapidly buried in the sediment that changes to rock over millions of years. Which type of fossil would be formed

A mold and cast

A map that accurately shows the shape and changing elevation of land is called a

topographic map

The difference in elevation between two neighboring contour lines is called the

contour interval

Contour lines that are far apart indicate a (blank) slope

blank=gentle

Contour lines that are close together indicate a (blank) slope

blank=steep

A gap in the rock records is often called a(n) (blank)

blank=nonconformity

Fossils form in the following rock type

sedimentary

A hollow area in sediment in the shape of all or part of an organism is called a

mold

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