Social Studies Chapter 6

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I'm going to be doing it section by section so right now I only have section 1.

Thomas Paine

wrote Common Sense. Thought the colonies should govern themselves.

Richard Henry Lee

introduced a resolution to congress. it proclaimed that "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States."

resolution

formal statement of opinion

preamble

introduction

grievance

formal complaints

Declaration of Independence

made up of 4 sections: preamble, Declaration of Natural Rights, List of Grievances, and Resolution of Independence. It was written by Thomas Jefferson with the help of John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.

Preamble

introduction to the Declaration of Independence. It states that "a decent respect to the opinions of mankind" repuires that Americans explain why they are breaking away from Britain.

Declaration of Natural Rights

States that "we hold these truths to be self-evident," or obvious to all. The first truth states that "all men are created equal." It also states that everyone is created with rights that can't be taken away from them. It also states that governments are created to protect people's rights.

List of Grievances

Jefferson proves that King George III violated the rights of the colonists. Many grievances accused King George III of ignoring rights that English citizens enjoyed. Time after time King George III ignored their petitions.

Resolution of Independence

It asserts that the colonies are "free and independent states... and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be totally dissolved." The document ends with a solemn pledge: "With a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor."

impact of the Declaration

The Patriots started fighting to create a new nation. The lines "all men are created equal" still inspires Americans and people of other nations.

Common Sense

A 50-page pamphlet that was published in Philadelphia in January 1776. He called King George III a "royal brute." He thought Americans would be much better off if they were governing themselves. 500,000 pamphlets were sold. It was very affective.

Thomas Jefferson

33-year-old delegate from Virginia. Wrote the Declaration of Independence.

Nathan Hale

a Conneticut officer who volunteered to be a spy. He was hung by British troops.

mercenaries

soldiers who are paid to fight for a country other than their own.

alliance

a formal agreement between two powers to work together toward a common goal.

Marquis de Lafayette

a French noble who became a high-ranking officer in Washington's army.

cavalry

units of troops on horseback.

Friedrich von Steuben

a German baron who helped train the Continental army. He trained the soldiers better than anyone else had.

Saratoga

the site of the battle known as the turning point for the Patriots.

Delaware River

river crossed by Washington and his troops to attack teh British at Trenton

Germany

nation that sent troops to help the British fight the Americans

Ticonderoga and Crown Point

two forts on Lake Champlain captured by British leader Burgoyne

Lake Champlain

lake where Fort Ticonderoga and Fort Crown Point were on.

enlist

signed up for duty

civilian

people not in the military

continental

printed paper money

George Rogers Clark

He was sent by Virginia with a militia to strike British forts beyond the Appalachian Mountains in 1778. His forces easily captured Kaskaskia and Cahokia. His midwinter attack on the fort at Vicennes caught the British by suprise. The British had to surrender.

Kaskaskia and Cahokia

two Mississippi River outposts that were captured by George Rogers Clark and his militia.

Bernardo de Galvez

He secretly provided money and munition to George Rogers Clark and other Americans. He also gave American ships safe refuge in New Orleans harbor. He played a key role in Spanish attacks that captured British forts on the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico.

John Paul Jones

He was an American commander of the Bonhomme Richard. He fought side by side with the larger British war ship Serapis and made them surrender.

privateer

armed civilian ships that had their government's permisison to attack enemy ships and keep their goods

Deborah Sampson

She dressed as a man and fought in the military. When she was injured, she tended to herself so her cover wouldn't be blown.

Mary Ludwig Hays

She was also known as Molly Pitcher, because during the war, she would run to the men and give them water. One time, when her husband was hurt, she manded the cannon and took his place.

Charles Cornwallis

British commander, brought war into South Carolina

guerrilla

fighters who work in small bands to make hit-and-run attacks

Francis Marion

led his men silently through the swamps in South Carolina. His attacks were very effective. His nickname was Swamp Fox.

Nathanael Greene

took over command of the Continental army in the South. He split his army into two. He led 1,200 men into eastern South Carolina, leaving General Daniel Cowpens. He put a small militia force in front, telling the men to fire three shots and then retreat.The British rushed forward, only to be met by charging cavalry and a line of skilled riflemen.

traitor

a person who betrays his or her country or cause and helps the other side

Benedict Arnold

an American traitor. He turned West Point, a key fort on the Hudson River in New York, over to the British.

Treaty of Paris 1783

Britain must recognize the United States as an independent nation. The boundaries of the United States were set at the Atlantic on the east, Canada on the north, the Mississippi River on the west, and Florida on the south. Florida was returned to Spain. The United States agreed to "earnestly recommend" that the states restore rights and property taken from Loyalists during the war. However, most states ignored this pledge.

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