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Key ID's for American Pageant, Ch. 1, 9th edition


• Scholars emphasized reason, questioned authority, and pursued free inquiry.
• Directed attention to scientific matters; Europeans wanted to know more about the world's size, shape, and people.
• The movement away from feudalistic societies to monarchies provided the unity, power, and resources needed to explore new lands, conquer existing civilizations, and colonize the land.


• The monarchy returned to England after the rule of Cromwell.
• Charles II ascended to the throne in 1660.
• Colonization had halted during Cromwell's rule but with Charles II, England began to build its empire again.

Prince Henry the Navigator

• He established a school of navigation that prompted more exploration, specifically for an all-water route around Africa and on to the East.
• In 1498 Vasco da Gama became the first to reach India by this route.

Treaty of Tordesillas

• In 1494 the Pope divided the "heathen lands" of the New World between Spain and Portugal.
• Spain took the lion's share of the area, but Portugal received compensating territory in Africa and Asia as well as the title to the lands that would later be Brazil.

Spanish Armada

• In 1588 Phillip II of Spain amassed a fleet of ships, financed by Spain's New World gains, to invade England and defeat Protestantism.
• The Spanish fleet was quickly overwhelmed by the faster, smaller, more maneuverable, and more ably-manned English ships.
• This weakened the imperial aspirations of Spain, marked the beginning of England's dominance of the world's oceans, and provided the opening for English colonization.

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