Chapter 1 Microbiology

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Microbes/Microorganisms

can't be seen with the unaided eye

Pathogen

disease causing organism

Pathogencity

how easily a microb causes a disease

genus

the first name and is always capitalized and underlined

species

comes after genus not capitalized and is underlined

Nomenclature

genus the species name. named to decribe the organism, honor the reseacher, or decribe the habitat

Bacteria

single celled organisms that don't have anuclear membrane; has a cell wall made of peptidoglycan; binary fission

Chemotherapy

using chemicals to treat disease

antibiotics

medicine that works against bacteria but not viruses

Prokaryotes

greek word meaning 'prenucleus'; bacteria and archaea are classified as this

Archaea

like bacteria but live in extreme condtions and if a specific one of these has a cell wall it is not made of peptidoglycan

Eukaryotes

microbes that have a distinct nucleus that holds genetic material and has a nuclear membrane

Fungi

may be unicellular or multicellular; cell wall made of chitin; contain Mycella; asexual or sexual

Mycelia

hyphae or stocks

virology

study of viruses

Bacteriology

study of bacteria

mycology

study of fungus

Viruses

non-living; DNA or RNA; no antibiotics can kill and very toxic to host cells

Protozoa

unicellular; moves by pseudopods, flagella, or cilla; sexual or asexual

algae

photosynthetic; sexual and asexual; usually unicellularcell walls made of cellulose

Helminthes

parasitic worms with mouths; multicellular

Parasitology

study of both protozoa and parasitic warms

Host

organism infected by pathogen

vector

arthropod or insects that carries organism between hosts

reservoir

continual source of infection (human, animal, or non-living)

Hooke

Coined the word cell (looking at cork)

VanLeewenhoek

found animulecules (in pond water)

Spontaneous Generation

life from nonliving

Needham

after boiling water there was still microbes (because exposed to air)

Redi

Piece of meat expose to air has maggots while meat in sealed has none

Spallanzani

took piece of meat sealed it then took it out and boiled => no microbes but others say because no air

Biogenesis

living from living

Pasteur

used 's' shaped neck on a flask that allowd air but the microbes got caught in the curve. no microrganism so spontainious generation disproved

aseptic techniques

aka not transfering microbe techiniques such as washing hands, disinfecting work surfaces, negative air flow, autoclaving

Pastuerization

heat enough to kill spoilage bacteria (ex. milk)

Fermentation

Microbes (yeast) convert sugar to alcohol

Lister

first Aseptic surgery (using phenol)

Koch Postulate

1. Microogranism isolated from dieased animal 2. microorganism grown in pure culture and identified under scope 3. microb now ejected in healthy animal and this animal also becomes sick 4. microb extracted grown in pur culture and identified again

Pure Culture

taking a sample of an microbe and getting only one out

Koch Postulate exceptions

1. took fastidious-> the requirements to grow are too specific to recreate in lab (ex blood -> sifilis/ viruses) 2. Disease cause by a number of microbes(ex urinary tract infection) 3. microbes produce a number of diseases (ex strep A) 4. ethical issues (ex infecting human with hiv or sifilis)

Jenner

created concept of vaccination/immunity

Vaccine

killed, inactive or attenuated microbes induced artifically aquired immunity

immunity

specific resistance by body's defence against a particular pathogen; 2 types active and passive

Active immunity

you make the anti bodies after having disease or vaccine

Passive immunity

given anitbodies the body doesnt make

Natural active immunity

get disease and body makes antibodies for future attacks by that specific pathogen

Natural passive immunity

get anti bodies from mothers placenta or breast milk.

Artificial active immunity

vaccine given at a doctors office that gets body to make antibodies from future attacks from that specific pathogen

Artificial passive immunity

Rhogam as a prenatial and right after birth precausion has proteins that covers baby cells and hides the cell from mothers leukocytes so it doesnt attack itself.

Immunology

study of immunity

Fleming

discovered Penicillin

Bioremediation

use of microbes to remediate or clean up polutions such as oil spills

Biotechnology

our use of microbes, cells or cell componets to make useful porducts. not natural (ex bioremedeation or sewage treatment or insect pest control)

Recombinant genetic energy

the manipulation of genetic material in vitro by the insertion of gene into the DNA of another species and that species makes the protein

Gene Therapy

use of a virus to insert/replace missing or incorrect gap into human cells (virus is just used to get gene to cells)(ex sickle cell anemia)

normal microbiota/ flora

microbes that colonize a host w/o causing disease

universal precautions

treat all specimen as if they are infected

Mad Cow

caused by prion that are in beef with the disesase. it affects the nervous system and eats holes in the brain as it progresses. silent killer(spongiform encepalitis) no treatment or cure. even if meat cooked cant get rid of

E. coli O157

transmission by bacteria and you get it from uncooked beef, unpasterurized beverages, spinich; symptoms: bloody diarrhea, dehydration, blood in urine, kidney death. you can treat the symptoms

Flesh Eating Strep

bactieria based illness. its a rapidly growing wound and can be treated by antibiotics

HIV/AIDS

caused by virus and travels and transmitted by blood and body fluids so sex needlesprenatally. there are no symptoms for years. there is treatment to delay symptoms. sympotoms include yeast and other infections, pneumonia and sarcoma

Syphillus

bacterial transferred by blood and body fluids. sex and prenatally. 3 symptomatic stages 1. (2 weeks to a month) skin lesions called chanere 2. rash then can lie dormant for years (called latent) 3. tissues suchs as brain, skin liver are affected and also blindness. is only treatable during stage 1 and 2

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