Chapter 7: Energy for Cells

12 terms by jaallen918 

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coenzymes

the enzymes that carry out oxidation during cellular respiration are assisted by these nonprotein helpers

glycolysis

occurs outside mitochondria in cytoplasm. the breakdown of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate
start: 2 ATP per glucose
end: 2 pyruvate & 2 ATP net

preparatory reaction

takes place in the matrix of mitochondria. pyruvate is broken down to a 2-carbon acetyl group carried by coenzyme A
start:1 pyruvate, 1 co enzyme A, 1 NAD+
end: 1 acetyl-coA, 1 NADH, 1 CO2

citric acid cycle

also takes place in matrix of mitochondria. as oxidation occurs, NADH and FADH2 result and more CO2 is. this cycle produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule
substrates: 1 Acetyl-CoA, 3 NAD+, 1 FADH2, 2 ATP
products: 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 ATP

electron transport chain

a series of electron carriers in the cristae of mitochondria
pumps proteins into intermembrane space
electrons donated to oxygen forms water

fermentation

the anaerobic breakdown of glucose, resulting in hte production of 2 ATP per glucose, ensures
that ATP is available for cellular processes
-why? without O2 the pool of NAD+ is used up. **Fermentation recycles NADH to NAD+ allowing more ATP production
-yields less energy than respiration

oxygen deficit

signified by breathing very heavily for a time

respiration

series of metabolic reactions that convert larger energy molecules into smaller ATP molecules
ex: making change from a $100 dollar bill

cristae

inner membrane folds

matrix

where most metabolisms take place

mitochondrial respiration

stages:
1. preparatory reaction
2. citric acid cycle
3. electron transport chain

energy yield from respiration

recover 40% of energy in glucose as ATP
ATP-40%
Heat- 60%

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