Art History I Exam I-2

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The Ziggurat at Ur can best be described as a:

Sumerian temple base

{Ishtar Gate, with its relief decorations of a dragon, lion and bull, comes from the city of}


Bull-headed capitals would most likely be found in


[The new concept of godlike sovereignty can be described by the representations of _________, the king who appeared as a god in Mesopotamian Akkadian art.]


Use of glazed brickwork is most characteristic of the city of __________.


The stylistic conventions of rigidly frontal symmetry, abnormally large eyes, and tightly clasped hands are most characteristic of the early art of ________.


The White Temple, Uruk is oriented to the _________________________.

Cardinal points of the compass

A predominant theme or themes found in the narrative reliefs of the Assyrians was or were:

war and hunting

Persian relief figure sculpture can be distinguished from earlier Mesopotamian styles by:

forms are more rounded

Which of the following best describes the Standard of Ur?

early example of historical narrative

In ancient Mesopotamia the hierarchy of scale was a convention, which indicated:

order of importance

The open-eyed stares of the votive statues of ancient Sumer are thought to represent:

eternal wakefulness and duty

The Mesopotamian king who codified the law and prescribed penalties for infractions was _________.


What Anatolian people constructed two huge lions that adorn the gateway to the citadel of Boghazköy?


The rock-cut relief at Bishapur depicts:

triumph of Shapur I over Valerian

Historical narrative relief can be found at the Assyrian palace of ___________ at Nimrud.

Ashurnasirpal II

Alexander the Great razed Persepolis in 330 BCE. What prior event suggests that this was an act of revenge?

Persian sack of the Athenian Acropolis

What epic poem recounts the exploits of a legendary king of Uruk and slayer of the monster Huwawa?

Epic of Gilgamesh

The Victory stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures) is an extraordinary monument because it provides information about warfare techniques and insight into the special nature of the ruler. Which statement provides the most valid justification for this assertion?

words and pictures are combined

The statement, "measuring rods and coiled rope," which connotes the ruler's capacity to build social order and render judgments, is best depicted on the ________________________.

Stele of Hammurabi

One of the suggested purposes of Assyrian narrative relief is to:

glorify the king

In Assyrian relief, such as Assyrian archers pursuing enemies, the artists combine different viewpoints in the same frame and other adjustments for clarity. Which of the following phrases best describes the artists' primary goal?

legible retelling of a decisive moment in king's deeds

The Elamite statue of Queen Napir-Asu shows its Mesopotamian heritage. Which phrase supports this assertion?

cylindrical volume and strict frontality

The Elamite statue of Queen Napir-Asu represents the ideal queen; in addition there is an allusion to fertility, as it relates to being queen. Which motif supports this allusion?

hands crossed over the belly

The Sumerians may have been the first to use pictures to tell coherent stories. What argument makes this a valid assertion?

narrative presented in registers or bands

Which of the following works of art was created first?

Warka Vase

What is diorite?
What is diorite?

rare and costly dark stone

The monumental gateway to the citadel of Persepolis is a reference to ___________________.

the harmony of the peoples of the Persian empire

What is the significance of cuneiform?

marked the beginning of writing, as historians strictly define it and led to more, sophisticated, complex grammatical constructions

Explain the importance of cylinder seals.

prized possessions indicating status and served as devices to identify ownership and prevent unauthorized use as well as a "signature".

What is a lamassu and where was it placed?

A winged man-headed bull as a guardian at the gate of the palace.

What is an iwan?

a brick audience hall covered by a barrel vault.

How did the destruction of Persepolis change the balance of power within the Ancient Near East?

symbolized the destruction of imperial Persian power and its end as a significant political power in the Mediterranean and Near Eastern worlds. The focus of power now rested in the hands of Alexander the Great and later Imperial Rome. In the 3rd century CE, a new dynasty rose and challenged Rome for supremacy of the area, the Sasanians.

What is the most importance archaeological source of knowledge regarding Persian architecture?


Discuss the focus of Sumerian city planning.

reflected the importance of religion in daily life; the city's nucleus was the temple that also served as the administrative and economic center for the city, thus representing both religious and secular functionalities.

Why was the concept of the city-state an important innovation?

the community rather than the family assumes the function of defense. Other activities such as
manufacturing or trade or administration become institutionalized thus gaining a unique and permanent identity.

What do the reliefs of the palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh depict?

the glory and power of the king as the triumphant ruler.

The Elamite Empire was strong enough to plunder Babylon and carry off the stele of Naram-Sin and Hammurabi, then re-erect them in their capital city of Susa. Why is this event significant?

It demonstrated their political and military superiority as the leading power during this time.

How does the lamassu provide a conceptual picture and all of its important parts?

it presents a front view of the animal at rest and a side view of it in motion, thus
showing the creature with all its important parts.

What is the purpose of a votive figure?

It offers constant prayers to the gods on behalf of the donor

Describe an architectural feature used at Persepolis that seems to have been uniquely Persian.

capitals with the foreparts of lions or bulls

How do the reliefs on the Palace of Darius at Persepolis reflect the purpose of the building?

The relief of subject nations bringing tribute to the Persian ruler and the complex palace ceremonials echoed the purpose of the great palace which was intended to symbolize Persian power.

What was the importance of the Code of Hammurabi?

He developed a codified series of laws that brought unity to the conflicting and often unwritten laws of Mesopotamia and probably influenced the Law of Moses, which had such a profound effect on Western civilization.

Describe three stylistic conventions found in Sumerian sculpture.

Sumerian relief sculpture uses the convention of showing figures in profile with shoulders full frontal, and the poses are regularized and repeated. An oval shape is used for full round sculpture; eyes are large, and hands are often clasped.

Why is the Hittite Lion Gate at Boghazköy significant?

It demonstrates a theme that was echoed throughout the Ancient Near East. The gate presents the idea of protection; the lions protect the city.

How is Ashurnasirpal identified in this relief?

Ashurnasirpal II (Figure 2-22A). The Kalhu panel shows the king, taller than everyone else as befits his rank, delicately holding a cup. The king and the attendant behind him are in consistent profile view, but the painter adhered to the rule of showing the eye from the front in a profile head.

What makes this depiction of Gudea significant?

Gudea (Figure 2-16A). The overflowing water jar that Gudea holds symbolizes the prosperity the ruler of Lagash brings to his people. In Mesopotamian art, normally only gods and goddesses are the sources of life-giving water.

Explain the significance of the design and function of this vessel.

Rhyton (Figure 2-26A). The Persian kings were famous for their luxurious tableware of gold and silver. A rhyton (pouring vessel) said to have been found at Hamadan in Iran provides a hint of the magnificent items that graced the tables of the Achaemenid aristocracy. Its shape is typical of these elaborate service pieces: a conical, trumpetlike container for wine hammered from a thin sheet of gold inserted at a right angle into an animal protome also crafted in repoussé.

The Head of an Akkadian ruler (Figure 2-12) represents

an official and ruler

Statuettes of worshipers (Figure 2-6) represent

deep commitment to religion and service

Statue of Queen Napir-Asu (Figure 2-19)

represents ideal queen and serves as a votive figure

Assyrian archers pursuing enemies (Figure 2-22) and Ashurbanipal hunting lions (Figure 2-23)

sculptors have shown the conceptual view of both events

Victory stele of Naram-Sin (Figure 2-13) and Triumph of Shapur I over Valerian (Figure 2-28)

both represent a military victory

Soundbox of the lyre from tomb 789 (Figure 2-10)

represents heraldic composition and burlesquing a regal feast

Assyrian archers pursuing enemies (Figure 2-22) and Ashurbanipal hunting lions (Figure 2-23)

sculptors have shown the conceptual view of both events

Victory stele of Naram-Sin (Figure 2-13) and Triumph of Shapur I over Valerian (Figure 2-28)

both represent a military victory

Soundbox of the lyre from tomb 789 (Figure 2-10)

represents heraldic composition and burlesquing a regal feast

Stele with law code of Hammurabi (figure 2-17) represents

the gods granting the right to rule

Statuettes of worshipers (Figure 2-6) and Seated Gudea holding temple plan (Figure 2-16)

both represent the deep commitment to religion and the gods

Persepolis (royal audience hall) (figure2-25) and Palace of Shapur I, Ctesiphon (Figure 2-27).

each palace complex defines its period

Victory stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures) (Figure 2-7) and Victory stele of Naram-Sin (Figure 2-13)

Victory stele of Naram-Sin shows daring innovation by breaking with the compositional formula of story telling via horizontal registers

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