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Hammurabi

King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law.

Amenhotep IV

Tried to bring about social and religious changes in Egypt; believed in monotheism rather than polytheism; he only worshipped Aton, so he changed his name to Akhenaton which means "he who is pleasing to Aton"; after his death Egypt returned to polytheism

The Persian Wars

A series of wars where the Greek city-states united against Persia, and managed to maintain control of the Aegean Sea and push the Persian Empire back

Peloponnesian War

Conflict between Athenian And Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors/Persian $$$ (135)

Alexander the Great

King of Macedonia who conquered Greece, Egypt, and Persia

Sophocles

Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex and Antigone

Punic Wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.

Caesar Augustus

Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. He established his rule after the death of Julius Caesar and he is considered the first Roman Emperor.

Diocletian

Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians

Livy

Roman historian who traced and celebrated Rome's history in the History of Rome.

Justinian

Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians.

Constantine

Roman emperor. After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion.

Edict of Milan

issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire

Arian Controversy

Arius: God must be unique and above all things. Jesus is Son of God, but not equal to God, He must be subordinate

Battle of Tours

Battle in 732 in which the Christian Franks led by Charles Martel defeated Muslim armies and stopped the Muslim advance into Europe

Charlemagne

Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800

Prince John

English king; failed as military leader; was evil and cruel to his subjects, raised taxes; alienated Church; was forced to agree to the Magna Carta

Battle of Crecy

English vs. France. English won because of long bow and pike. Also used commoners unlike France

War of the Roses

struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII

Gautama Siddharta

The "Enlightened" founder of that religion whose practices taught men to live ethical lives to advance the soul and avoid retribution of karma. AKA Buddha

Great Schism

a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office

Thomas Aquinas

influential scholastic thinker (1225-1274) wrote Summa Theologica, recognized faith and reason as overlapping realms of knowledge

Lorenzo Valla

(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On false Donation of Constantine. Father of modern historical criticism.

Erasmus

Dutch scholar - translated the New Testament into Greek, wrote the satire In Praise of Folly

Council of Constance

the council in 1414-1418 that succeeded in ending the Great Schism in the Roman Catholic Church

Zwingli

A Swiss religious and social reformer who led the Swiss reformation, rejected papal authority and orthodoxy.

John calvin

French Protestant theologian of the Reformation; he founded Calvinism, which was associated with the doctrine of predestination

Henry VIII

English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)

Council of Trent

a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers

William of Orange

Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Hapsburg Philip II of Spain.

Henry IV of Navarre

A politique whose rise to power ended the French Civil Wars; converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris, but privately remained a Calvinist and issued Edict of Nantes

Edict of Nantes

This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots

Peace of Westphallia

A series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' war, also ended the holy roman empire

Francis Bacon

English philosopher who believed that scientists should rely on inductive reasoning, not ancient knowledge; introduced the scientific method

Copernicus

Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe

Isaac Newton

Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.

William Harvey

Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.

Leopold I

Austrian king who encouraged eastward movement of the Austrian empire. Architect of the Austrian Empire

Frederick William, the Great Elector

This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.

Great Northern War

- Russia vs. the Swedes for strip of Baltic Coast
-Russia won
-finally had warm water port

Bride Wealth

A payment in the form of money, property, or other valuable asset that is made by or on behalf of a prospective husband to the bride's family in certain cultures or societies

Zheng He

Chinese admiral during the Ming Dynasty, he led great voyages that spread China's fame throughout Asia

Galley

the area for food preparation on a ship

astrolabe

an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets

Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo

a former colonial administrator who was named Historian of the Indies by the King of Spain.

John II

polish, 1st non italian pope since the schism

Pedro Alvares Cabral

Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil

Afonso de Albuquerque

Portuguese captain who gained control of Malacca. This allowed Portugal to compete with Muslim/Italians in terms of Asian imports

portolans

written description of the courses along which ships sailed, showing bays, coves, capes, etc. and the distance between, invented by Portuguese

conquistadore

spanish conquerors that fanned out accross the caribbean and eventually onto the mainland of the American continents.

Viceroy

governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign

Audiencia

Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were ten in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates.

Quinto

One-fifth: amount the Spanish crown was to receive of all precious metals mined in the Americas.

Encomienda System

system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.

Bartolome de Las Casas

First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476

William Penn

A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.

John Locke

This English philosophe argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights

Gluckel of Hameln

She was a Jewish widow from Hameln in Lower Saxony. She wrote a record of her grief after the death of her husband. It became an invaluable source for scholars

Duc de Saint-Simon

noble, writes about Louis XIV's love for praise, says he is not that smart, believes king is quick to imprison and judge

Mehmet II

7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)

Ivan IV

First Czar of Russia. During good Era: made many reforms, Created a council that included members from all classes, Defeated Mongols and expanded borders. During bad Era: Paranoid and strict policies lost many of his followers. Killed his only heir and launched Russia into a Time of Troubles.

sultan

"overlord" or "one with power"; title for Ottoman rulers during the rise of the Ottoman Empire

Devshirme

Ottoman policy of taking boys from Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers

Suleiman

Ottoman sultan who brought the Ottoman Empire to its height; he succeeded in defeating the Habsburgs and capturing Vienna.

Janissaries

Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.

Concubine

a mistress , A secondary wife with few rights, not legally married to him.

Hurrem

Ukrainian woman who was given as a slave to the Ottoman king, Suleyman the Magnificent and eventually became his wife. She became a very influential political figure.

Shah

an Islamic king, often from Iran or Persia.

Safavid

The shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in persia between the 16th and 18th centuries

Shah Abbas

Great ruler of the Safavids who led them to a Golden Age

Babur

First sultan of the Mughal Empire; took lots of land in India.

Ferdinand

King of Spain who, with his wife Queen Isabella, paid for Columbus's voyages to America.

Miguel Lopez de Legazpi

Spanish navigator. sailed from Mexico took city of Manila, Philippines. . Manila served as transpacific bridge between Spanish America and extreme eastern trade.

Matteo Ricci

An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China

Francis Xavier

This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity

Commonwealth

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

Akbar

Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. (p. 536)

Pasha Sinan

the greatest builder under the Ottomans. He designed 312 public buildings.

Piri Reis

The Ottoman admiral and cartographer who produced several large-scale maps and a major navigational text (The Book of Seafaring) which drew on reports and maps from European mariners and explorers

Abi Ahmet Celebei

the chief physician of the Indian Empire. He produced a study on kidney and bladder stones, including the application of drugs for them.

Takiyuddin Memet

the chief astronomer for the sultan. He built an observatory at Istanbul.

Caraval

Small maneuverable ship used in Portugal during 15th century.
Used by Portugal and other European nations to explore new lands

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