exactly the same words previously used
absence of preconceived ideas/clean slate
dry land/solid ground
school one attended
alpha and omega
beginning and end
a moody person that thinks highly of him/herself OR a main singer in an opera
new and innovative
with honors/with praise
a particular way of doing something
fashionable or hip for the day "of the moment"
e pluribus unum
one from many
esprit de corps
unity among members of a group "high morale"
joie de vivre
joy of life/living
widely known because of controversy
cest la vie
It is what it is; that is life
most important achievement of an artist
having seen or experienced something before
devised for the purpose at hand, impromptu
keeping things the way they are
appeals to fear
consists of suggesting if argument isn't true, bad things will happen
appeals to fear e
ex: "Buy PyroSafeguard smoke alarms, or your entire neighborhood could go up in flames."
urges others to go along with the majority
ex: "Millions of Americans wear Nike shoes. You should too!"
presents two extreme outcomes
false dilemma e
ex: "School food- eat it or starve."
an emotional appeal to inspire strong feelings
loaded words e
ex: "If you love this nation, you'll buy American Pride toilet paper."
skew stats to support an argument
misused statistics e
ex: "Rock stars die much earlier than other people. This proves that rock stars are punished for leading indulgent, selfish lives."
makes accusations about a person without addressing the person's actual argument
name calling e
ex: "Mayor McGhee is a crook!"
does not logically follow from the previous argument
involves the credibility or character of opponent
personal attack e
ex: "Margie Buttersworth should not be elected to student council because she failed her driver's exam twice."
associates with simple values and down-to-earth people
plain folks e
ex: "I live right here in this fair city with you great folks, and I'm telling you this toxic waste won't hurt anyone."
convinces that people can be better than others by acting one way
ex: "In the great cities of the world, men and women of distinction prefer Levi jeans!"
uses commonly held images of a group to make a point about an individual
ex: "My opponent is a man, and we all know men can't cook... So my opponent cannot cook!"