British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
(1857) Hindus and Muslim sepoys refused to open cartridges that came in paper waxed with animal fat for religious reasons; killed British officers, and proclaimed restoration of the Mughal authority; had different interests, and were crushed by the British
British dominion over India (1757-1947)
Indian National Congress
group formed by Hindu nationalist leaders of India in the late 1800's to gain greater democracy and eventual self-rule
organization formed by muslims in 1906 to protect their interests against British Rule.
treaties between China and the Western powers after the Opium War that vastly favored the Western powers
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.
The most destructive civil war in China before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. Leader claimed to be the brother of Jesus.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Overthrew the Qing Dynasty. He was the first president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912
Treaty of Kanagawa
(1854) Trade treaty between Japan and the United States opening up two Japanese ports to U.S. trade; signed in response to a show of force by U.S. admiral Matthew Perry
The Japanese emperor who served as the figurehead of the Japanese modernization movement
A war between China and Japan for influence, power, and territory
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.
A Zulu chief in Southern Africa who used soldiers and good military organization to create a large centralized state.
Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia. In the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
a dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foriegn companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants
Mexican revolutionary who led a revolt for agrarian reforms (1879-1919)
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. (819)
(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).
led the fight for Cuba's independence from Spain from 1895 through the Spanish-American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force