anatomy chapter 2 cells

34 terms by XXyerdXX 

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nonmembranous organelles

Cytoskeleton, Microvilli, Centrioles, Cilia, Flagella, Ribosomes

membranous organelles

Mitochondria, Nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes

plasmella membrane

lipid bi-layer; composed of phospholypids, glycolypids, protein, cholestorol

diffusion

Lipids, lipid-soluble molecules, and soluble gases (O2 and CO2 ) can pass through the lipid bilayer of the plasmalemma.

osmosis

Water, small watersoluble molecules, and ions diffuse through membrane channels.

facilitated diffusion

Large molecules that cannot fit through the membrane channels and cannot diffuse through the membrane lipids can only cross the plasmalemma when transported by a carrier mechanism

endocytosis

taking something into the cell

pinocytosis

cell drinking

phagocytosis

cell eating

receptor mediated endocytosis

ligands bind to receptors allowing flow of specific molicules

microfilaments

Anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins
• Stabilize the position of membrane proteins
• Anchor plasmalemma to the cytoplasm
• Produce movement of the cell

intermediate filaments

Provide strength
• Stabilize organelle position
• Transport material within the cytosol

microtubuals

Involved in the formation of centrioles, which are
involved in cell reproduction
ex. cilia, flagella

thick filaments

Found in muscle cells: involved in muscle
contraction

Ribosome

Both are involved in producing protein
composed of 60% RNA 40% protein

Free ribosomes

float in cytoplasm

attached ribosomes

attached to ER

Mitochondria

double membrane
inner membrane contains folds called cristae

Nucleus

contains chromosomes
• Nucleoplasm
• Nuclear envelope
• Perinuclear space
• Nuclear pores
• Nuclear matri

Endoplasmic reticulum

network of hollow tubes

Golgi apparatus

• Synthesis and packaging of secretions
• Packaging of enzymes (modifies protein)
• Renewal and modification of the plasmalemm

Lysosomes

contains digestive enzymes
removal of damaged organelles or pathogens

Peroxisomes

contains degradative enzymes
catabolism of organic componds
neutralization of toxins

chromosomes

DNA wrapped around proteins called histones

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

• Consists of fixed ribosomes
• Proteins enter the E

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

• Synthesizes lipids, steroids, and carbohydrates
• Storage of calcium ions
• Detoxification of toxins

Membrane flow

This is the continuous movement and
recycling of the cell membrane

cytosol

fluid component of cytoplasm; may contain insoluble matereials

cytoskeleton

proteins organised in fine filliments of slender tubes

microvilli

membrains containing extensive microfiliments

cilia

membrane extensions containing microtubule doublets in a 9+2 arrangement

communicating junctions

held together by proteins
allow passing of small molecules

adhering junctions

anchor cells together
like a zipper

tight junction

fusion of outer layer of plasmellae
prevent diffusion of fluid between cells

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