Language Chapter 10: Nervous System Test

53 terms by kimpossible67

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cerebellum

Part of the brain that controls muscular coordination, movement and balance

Dyslexia

Disorder of reading, writing, and learning

Paresthesia

Abnormal sensation of tingling or prickling

Cerebrovascular accident

Cerebral aneurysm, thrombosis, or hemorrhage can be the cause

Axon

part of a nerve cell, branching fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell

Meninges

three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord

Embolism

obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign substance, floating clot; mass of material suddenly blocks a blood vessel

Cauda equina

tail end of the spinal cord, collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

Glial

pertaining to supportive cells of the nervous system

Thalamus

part of the brain that serves as a main relay station

Plexus

large interlacing network of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system

Acetylcholine

substance that helps transmit a nervous impulse

Neurasthenia

lack of strength in nerves; sense of weakness and exhaustion

dementia

Loss of mental capacity, mental decline and deterioration

glial cell

Astrocyte is an example

dendrite

First part of the neuron to receive the nervous impulse, branching fiber

parenchyma

Essential, distinguishing cells of an organ

synapse

Space between nerve cells through which a nervous impulse is transmitted

acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter

central nervous system

Brain and the spinal cord

sensory nerve

Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord

axon

Microscopic nerve fiber that carries impulse from the cell body along the nerve cell

autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

myelin sheath

Fatty tissue surrounding and protecting the axon of a nerve cell

oligodendroglia

Glial cell that produces myelin

cerebral cortex

Outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter

Aura

peculiar symptoms appearing before more definite symptoms

Palliative

relieving but not curing

Transient ischemic attack

interruption of blood supply to the cerebrum, mini stroke

Occlusion

blockage

Dopamine

neurotransmitter, chemical messenger released at the end of neurons

Glioblastoma multiforme

malignant brain tumor of immature glial cells

Absence seizure

minor form of epileptic seizure

Tonic-clonic seizure

major convulsive epileptic seizure

Meningomyelocele

Spina bifida, congenital defect of the spinal column with herniation of the spinal cord and meninges

cerebral angiography

X-ray record of blood vessels within the brain

cerebral hemorrhage

Breakage of a blood vessel within the brain

multiple sclerosis

Demyelination of tissue around the axons of CNS neurons

cerebral palsy

Paralysis and loss of muscular coordination caused by brain damage in the perinatal period

myasthenia gravis

Elapsing weakness of skeletal muscles ("no muscle strength"); autoimmune condition

hydrocephalus

Collection of fluid in the ventricles of the brain

Parkinson disease

Degeneration of nerves in the brain; occurring in later life and leading to tremors, bradykinesia

Tourette syndrome

Involuntary, spasmodic twitching movements; uncontrollable utterances

Anesthesia

Condition of no nervous sensation

parenchymal

Essential cells of an organ

hypothalamus

Beneath the thalamus; controls appetite, sleep, and the pituitary gland

pia mater

Thin, delicate innermost membrane of meninges

medulla oblongata

Part of the brain that controls respiration, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels

arachnoid membrane

Middle meningeal membrane; spider-like

pons

Lying between the medulla and the rest of the brain; bridge connecting various parts of the brain

cerebrum

Largest part of the brain

gyri

elevations on surface of cerebellum

radiculitis

Inflammation of a spinal nerve root

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