Lesson 3 (Rome, Rise of Christianity, Rise of Islam)

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republic

a form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote

patrician

one of Rome's wealthy landowners who became Rome's ruling class; one of two groups of citizens

plebeian

a number of the second and larger group of Roman citizens who were less wealthy landowners, merchants, and craftspeople

consul

an officer of the Roman Republic who ran the government and led the army into battle

praetor

an officer of the Roman Republic who was in charge of civil law

triumvirate

a government by three people of equal power

dictator

an absolute ruler

imperator

commander-in-cheif of the Roman army; a title given to Augustus by the Senate

paterfamilias

the dominate male in a Roman family

insulae

apartment blocks in Rome where the poor lived

procurator

a Roman official who directed the affairs of the province

New Testament

the second part of the Christian Bible

clergy

church leaders

laity

regular church members

plague

an epidemic disease

inflation

a rapid increase in prices

sheikh

the ruler of an Arab tribe

Quran

the holy scriptures of Islam

Islam

peace through submission to the will of Allah; the religion founded by Muhammad

Hijrah

the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah

hajj

a pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the five pillars of Islam

shari'ah

a set of laws followed by Muslims

caliph

a successor to Muhammad or a ruler of Islam

jihad

"struggle in the way of God;" the Arabic customs of raiding one's enemies

Shiite

Muslims who accepted only the descendants of Ali as true caliphs

Sunni

Muslims who accepted only the descendants of the Umayyads as the true caliphs

vizier

prime minister who advised the caliph

sultan

"holder of power;" the title of the Turkish ruler who took command of the Arab empire

mosque

a Muslim temple or house of worship

bazaar

a covered market

dowry

in Islamic society, a gift of money or property given to a bride from the husband

astrolabe

an instrument used by sailors to determine their position by observing the stars and planets

minaret

a tower on a mosque

muezzin

a crier who calls the faithful to prayer

arabesque

geometric patterns that decorated Islamic works of art

Etruscans

group of people that launched a building program that turned Rome into a city

Vandals

German tribe that invaded the Roman Empire and sacked Rome in A.D. 455

Theodosius the Great

made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire

Sadducees

group of Jewish leaders who favored cooperation with the Romans

Romulus Augustulus

deposed by the Germanic head of the army, marking the fall of the Western Roman Empire

Antony and Cleopatra

couple who committed suicide after being defeated by Octavian

Roman Senate

a select group of about three hundred patricians who served for life

Pax Romana

period of peace and prosperity that lasted almost a hundred years

Centuriate Assembly

a group of people in the Roman Republic who chose the consuls and praetors, and passed laws

Twelve Tables

Rome's first code of laws; it applied to Romans and non-Romans

Abbasids

replaced the Umayyad dynasty

Omar Khayyam

Muslim author known for his literary works, especially the Rubaiyat

Cordoba

with a population of two hundred thousand, it was Europe's second largest city after Constantinople

Pharisees

group of Jewish leaders who thought that closely following religious law would protect Jews from Roman influences

vizier

prime minister who advised the caliph

Aphrodite

Greek Goddess of Love, named Venus by the Romans

Virgil

most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age and author of the Aeneid

Mars

the Roman God of War, names Ares by the Greeks

Muhammad

prophet of Allah who believed the final revelations of Allah were being given to him

Juvenal

Roman poet who said the only things that concerned the Roman masses were "Bread and Circuses"

Circus Maximus

Roman arena where chariot races and gladiatorial shows took place

Hussein

led a revolt in the early Umayyad period that split Islam into two groups: the Shiites and the Sunnis

"fleets of the desert"

name for the Berber camel caravans

Edict of Milan

decree issued by Constantine that proclaimed the official tolerance of Christianity

Hannibal

Carthaginian general who crossed the Alps with 46,000 men, lots of horses, and 37 elephants and conquered some parts of Italy, but not Rome

Bedouins

nomadic Arabs in the desert who were among the first people to support Muhammad

Seljuk Turks

nomads from central Asia who replaced the Abbasids in 1055

Sicily

became Rome's first province after the First Punic War

Zama

battle at which Hannibal's forces were finally defeated in 202 B.C.

Gracchus brothers

pushed for land reform as a remedy for Rome's economic and social crisis

Octavian/Augustus

Rome's first emperor who brought stability to the Roman Empire

Spartacus

led the most famous of the Roman slave revolts, which lasted for two years

Constantine

first Roman emperor to accept Christianity as his personal faith

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