Organelle Cell Test Review

23 terms by jonahepema 

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Cell Membrane

-is thin and flexible and controls the movement of materials into and out of a cell
-is similar to a soap bubble

Cell Wall

-gives support to a plant so it can grow tall
-keeps the vacuole from bursting the cell
-is made of cellulose

Chlorophyll

-is the green pigment found in chloroplasts

Chloroplasts

-this organelle contains the material to trap sunlight to make food for the plant cell
-this organelle has a double membrane

Chromosomes

-they are made up of DNA and pass traits or characteristics of the cell on to new cells
-is made up of long threadlike strands that become rod-like during cell division

ER

-is a complex system of passageways throughout the cell which helps to transport substances

Golgi Bodys

-is the organelle which packages substances

Lysosome

-using enzymes, lysosomes break down large food molecules into smaller ones
-is very small and is more numerous in animal cells
-dissolves the tail on a tadpole
-plays a role in cell death

Mitochondria

-shaped in the form of a bean or rod
-where cellular respiration takes place
-the place where sugars are broken down into water and carbon dioxide
-supplies most of the energy for the cell
-has a double membrane folded back and forth

Nucleolus

-is a round sphere found in the nucleus which plays a role in the manufacture of ribosomes

Nucleus

-is called the "brain" of the cell because it controls all cell activities
-is an organelle with a double membrane
-is the largest organelle in animals

Ribosomes

-attached to the surface of endoplasmic reticulum
-manufacture proteins

Vacuoles

-takes up most of the space in a plant cell
-the storage center for a cell
-when I am full I help keep the plant from tipping over

Hooke

-observed cork
-named the chambers "cells"

Virchow

-discovered that all cells come only from other living cells
-lived in the 1800's

Schleiden

-proposed that all plants are made up of cells
-lived in the 1800's

Van Leewenhoek

-observed living organisms in water and called these living things animalcules
-was the first person to see bacteria

Schwaan

-proposed that all animals are made up of cells
-lived in the 1800's

Eukaryotic Cells

-has a nucleus
-these cells can be unicellular or multicellular
-have linear DNA

Prokaryotic Cells

-just has a nuclear area
-most are single celled
-circular DNA

Cell Theory

-all living things are made of cells
-the cell is the basic unit of life
-all cells come from pre-existing cells

-Why don't cells just keep getting bigger as the organism grows?

As a cell grows, the volume of cell grows at a faster rate than its surface area. Therefore, a point will be reached where Th.`e surface area will not be able to bring food in and wastes out fast enough to meet the needs of the cell.

-Describe the phospholipid bilayer of a cell membrane. (Include a picture.)

The cell membrane is made of a double layer of phospholipids. A phospholipid has hydrophilic (water loving) heads made of phosphate and hydrophobic tails (water fearing) made of lipids. Notice the heads point outward so they are in contact with the water environments inside and outside the cell.

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