Sympathetic Nervous System
-alpha and beta receptors
Parasympathetic Nervous System
adrenergic (sympathetic) agents
-release (NE) norepinephrine through alpha and beta receptors
Alpha 1 receptor stimulation causes
constriction of blood vessels, pupil dilation (high blood pressure)
Alpha 2 receptor stimulation causes
inhibition of NE release, lowering blood pressure
Beta 1 receptor stimulation causes
increase in heart rate and force of contraction
Beta 2 receptor stimulation causes
the lungs and bronchials to open up.
Adrenergic agents are used for their effects on:
the heart, bronchial tree, nasal passages
Side effects of adrenergic agents:
palpitations, tachycardia, skin flushing, dizziness, tremors
Adrenergic Blockers (alpha and beta)
block the alpha or beta receptors so the receptors are not stimulated
Beta blockers end in:
Beta blocker side effects:
bradycardia, peripheral vasoconostriction, bronchospasm, wheezing, heart failure.
Alpha blockers end in :
alpha blockers are used as _________ for hypertension and Raynaud's disease
alpha blocker side effects:
orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, nausea, bradycardia
Cholinergic Agents (parasympathomimetic agents)
used to mimic actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
-not widely used due to severe adverse effects
Cholinergic Side effects:
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, hypotension, dizziness.
Anticholinergics (muscarinic blockers)
prevent the action of acetylcholine, have opposite actions of the parasympathetic branch, mimic fight or flight response.
Side effects of Anticholinergics:
blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, dryness of mouth, nose and throat.
neurotransmitter thought to be responsible for continuing the pain message
medication used to relieve pain
Opioids are effective at:
suppressing the cough reflex.
Narcan is the most commonly used:
opioid antagonist. Its used for opioid overdose and postoperative opioid depression.
has NO anti inflammatory action, does not effect blood coagulation
Max dose for Tylenol in a day is ______ because:
4,000mg perday, having more than this would cause liver toxicity
Acetylsysteine is given when:
tylenol is overdosed
Aspirin should never been given to:
All convulsions are _______ but not all ______ are convulsions
Goal of anti seizure therapy:
-supress neuronal activity just enough to prevent abnormal or repetitive firing. Minimize adverse effects of the medicine.
inhibitory effects of GABA
Benzodiazepines all have the word _____ in their name
used for management of status epilepticus; also for nausea and vomiting, preoperative sedation, anxiety and insomnia
used for treatment of status epilepticus; also for anxiety related symptoms and muscle spasms
medical emergency that occurs when a seizure is repeated continuously and can lead to brain damage and death if left untreated.
(anti seizure med) desensitizes and prevents spread of disruptive electrical charges in the brain that produce seizures.
Dilantin SE are:
dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, hyperglycemia, ataxia, tritching, insomnia. Interacts with many other drugs! should be used with caution when taking herbal supplements.
antihistamine (H1 receptor blockers)
selectively block the actions of histamine thus alleviating allergic symptoms.
antihistamines reduce the symptoms of :
sneezing, rhinorrhea, and watery eyes
antihistamines DO NOT decrease:
Antihistamine Side Effects:
drowsiness, dry mouth, tachycardia, mild hypotension, constipation
used to reduce nasal congestion.
Decongestants cause __________ in the nasal mucous membranes
Side Effects of Decongestants:
mild nasal irritation, insomnia, anxiety, hypertension*
Metered Dose Inhalor (MDI)
needs to be timed with inhalation, mouth is rinsed out after MDI's to prevent absorption into the GI tract and decrease side effects.
Antitussives are drugs that control ______
_______ are the most effective class of antitussives. They act by _________
Opioids; by raising the cough threshold in the cough center, which decreases both the frequency and intensity of the cough. (ie, hydrocodone & codeine)
Expectorants are drugs that:
reduce the thickness or viscosity of bronchial secretions
Expectorants allow for less_______ coughing
Side effects of expectorants:
nausea, vomiting, GI upset
Mucolytics directly loosen _____
thick, viscous bronchial secretions
Acetylcysteine is given for _________ OD
Bronchodilators relieve _____
acute bronchospasms quickly
3 catagories of bronchodilators:
beta-adrenergic, xanthienes, anti cholinergics
Beta Adrenergic Agents are most effective for relieving _______
Beta Adrenergic Agents stimulate _______ within the smooth muschle of the ________
beta receptors; tracheobronchial tree
Albuterol and Epinephrine are _______ acting beta adrenergic agents
Side effects of beta adrenergic agents:
oral meds-tachycardia and tremors
Anticholinergic Agents block _____
parasympathetic nervous system
Anticholinergic side effects:
HA, dizziness, nausea, chest pain, dry mouth and throat irritation, tachycardia
Xanthienes directly act on:
smooth muscle of tracheobrachial tree to dilate bronchi
Xanthienes side effects:
nausea, vomiting, CNS stimulation, tachycardia and or palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias.
Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) are most effective in _________
treating long term prophylaxis of asthma
Corticosteroids are not effective in stopping ______
an attack already in progress.
inflammation, reduce airway obstruction
reduce inflammation and ease bronchoconstriction.
Mast Cell Stabilizers
inhibit release of histamine from master cells.
imbalance between the neurotransmitters dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain
Parkinson's drug therapy:
increase ability of pt to perform ADL's and minimize symptoms
Parkinson drug groups:
Dopaminergic agents: increase dopamine levels
Anticholinergic agents: block the effects of acetylcholine
(Parkinson med) combination of carbidopa-levodopa therapy.
-carbidopa reduces the metabolism of levodopa peripherally so more levodopa reaches receptor sites in the brain.
loss of ability to perform tasks that require acetylcholine as the central neurotransmitter.
Alzheimer's drug therapy:
improve cognitive function
Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors_______
are most commonly used to treat alzheimer's because it causes acetylcholine receptors to increase
autoimmune disorder of the CNS, antibodies target and slowly destroy tissues in teh brain and spinal cord (demyelination)
2 strategies for treating MS_______
anti inflammatory to prevent attack s on the nervous system, treatments to relieve symptoms
used to treat MS, interferon 1 a and interferon 1 b
Side effects of immunostimulants:
flu- like syndrome (hay fever, chills, muscle aches), anxiety, discomfort at injection site, liver toxicity.
single prolonged spasm
multiple rapid repeated contractions
used to treat muscle spasms.
muscle groups in continuous state of contraction
involuntary muscle contractions that fore body parts into abnormal movements or postures.