CMAA STUDY GUIDE

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STUDY GUIDE FROM NHA

Patient's Bill of Rights

developed for fairness and effectiveness of healthcare system - encourage people to take interest in their health - posted visibly in facility

HIPAA

establishes regulations for use and disclosure of protected health info - mandates all patients be provided with a copy of privacy policy

verbal communication

communication with use of language - words , sound , speaking

late patient - conflict

advise patient to arrive 30 minutes prior to apt

emergency call - conflict

patient should be seen same day

cancelled apt - conflict

remove original apt time - schedule new apt

unscheduled patient - conflict

accomodate patient as best as possible - patient should be squeezed in for a brief apt

failed apt - conflict

note absence on patient chart and apt book - attempt to reschedule

delayed patient wait time

briefly explain the reason for the delay - provide options for reschedule

block letter style

everything is aligned with the left margin

personal mail of physician

should be placed on top of mail pile

mail opened in error

should be taped and noted on front opened in error

personal and medical history
medical record

information gathered from patient - past illnesses , surgeries, daily health habits

patient's family history
medical record

important info - health of family members - causes and record of death

patient social history
medical record

patient lifestyle - smoking and drinking habits

diagnosis
medical record

decision made based on info regarding patient history and results of doctor's examination

indexing filing

last name, first name, middle - hyphenated is used as one unit - apostrophes are not used - titles and seniority used only on identical names - the and a are omitted

alphabetic filing

arranged in alphabetical order - must be enough room in filing cabinet for proper distribution

numeric filing

alphabetic cross reference used - assigned in consecutive numbers - : terminal digit

subject filing

either alpha or numeric assigned to general correspondence

tickler file

date labeled files used as reminder for time sensitive matters - used as follow up method - checked daily

arthr/o

joint

cardi/o

heart

carcin/o

cancer - cancerous

cephal/o

head

cerebr/o

cerebrum - largest part of brain

cyt/o

cell

dent/i

teeth

derm/o

skin

electr/o

electrical activity

enter/o

intestine

fet/o

fetus

gastr/o

stomach

hepat/o

liver

iatr/o

treatment, physician

leuk/o

white

nephr/o

kidney

oste/o

bone

path/o

disease

ren/o

kidney

rhin/o

nose

sarc/o

flesh

thromb/o

clotting

ur/o

urinary tract

organs

comprised of several types of tissue

systems

groups of organs working together to perform complex function

dorsal cavities

back of body
positional term is posterior
cranial cavity and spinal cavity

ventral cavities

front of body
positional term is anterior
thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity

pleural cavity

part of thoracic cavity
space surrounding each lung

mediastinum cavity

part of thoracic cavity
contains heart, aorta, trachea, etc

diaphragm

muscle seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

pelvic cavity

rectum, urinary bladder, urethrs and ureters, uterus and vagina

abdominal cavity

stomach, small and large intestine, spleen, pancreas, liver and gallbladder

abdominopelvic cavity

abdominal and pelvic cavity referred to as this because nothing seperates them

sagittal plane

vertical planes that seperate the sides from each other

midsagittal plane

seperates the body into right and left halves

frontal plane

divides body into front and back

transverse plane

divides body horizontally into upper and lower

musculoskeletal system

includes bones, muscles and joints - framework for organs - protects organs - ability to move

ligaments

fibrous bands of tissue connect bones to one another

tendons

attach muscle to bones

fascia

fibrous covering of muscles

articular cartilage

covers end of many bones - serves as protective function

bones

complete organs made up of connective tissue called osseous

hematopoietic tissue

inner core of bone - red bone marrow manufactures blood cells

axial skeleton

skull, rib cage, spine

appenduicular skeleton

shoulder, collar, pelvic , arms and legs

long bones

very strong, broad at ends and have large surface for muscle attachment
femur and humerus

short bones

small irregular shape
wrist and ankle

flat bones

covers softs body parts
shoulder blade, ribs, pelvic bones

sesamoid bones

small rounded resemble sesame seed - found near joints - increases efficiency of muscles near a joint

frontal bone - cranium

forms anterior part of skull and forehead

parietal bones - cranium

forms the side of the cranium

occipital bone - cranium

forms the back of the skull

foramen magnum - cranium

part of occipital bone - allows brain communication to the spinal cord

temporal bone - cranium

forms two lower sides of cranium

ethmoid bone - cranium

forms the roof of the nasal cavity

sphenoid bones - cranium

anterior to the temporal bones

zygoma - facial

cheekbone

lacrimal bones - facial

paired bones at the corner of each eye cradles the tear ducts

maxilla - facial

upper jaw bone

madible - facial

lower jaw bone

vomer - facial

bone that forms the posterior/inferior part of the nasal septal wall between the nostrils

palatine bones - facial

mark up part of the roof on the mouth

inferior nasal conchae - facial

mark up part of the interior of the nose

vertebrae

26 - make up the spine

cervical spine

neck bones

thoracic spine

upper back

lumbar spine

lower back

sacral spine

sacrum

coccygeal spine

coccyx - tailbone

rib cage

12 pairs of ribs
true - false - floating

true ribs

# 1-7 attaches directly to sternum in the front of the body

false ribs

# 8-10 attach to sternum by cartilage

floating ribs

11 & 12 are not attached at all

upper appendicular skeleton

shoulder girdle made up of scapula, clavicle and upper extremities

scapula

shoulder blade - flat bones help support the arms

clavicle

collarbone - curved horizontal bones attach to upper sternum at one end - help stabalize the shoulder

upper extremities

humerus , ulna , radius, carpals , metacarpals, phalanges

humerus

upper arm bone

ulna

lower medial arm bone

radius

lateral arm bone - in line with the thumb

carpals

wrist bones - two rows of four bones

metacarpals

five radiating bones in the fingers - bones in palm of hand

phalanges

finger bones - each finger has three phalanges except for the thumb
proximal, middle, distal phalanx

lower appendicular skeleton

pelvis and lower extremities

pelvis

superior and widest bone

ischium

lower portion of the pelvic bone

pubic bone

lower anterior part of the bone

lower extremities

femur, patella, tibia, fibula , malleolus, tarsal, metatarsal, phalanx

femur

thighbone

patella

kneecap

tibia

shin

fibula

smaller, lateral leg bone

malleolus

ankle

tarsal

hind foot bone

metatarsal

midfoot bone

phalanx

toe bones - 14 in all - 2 in great toe - 3 in each other toes

joints

two or more bones join - have different ROM - no movement to full ROM

no ROM

most synarthroses are immovable joints held together by fibrous tissue

limited ROM

amphiathroses joints are joined together by cartilage slightly moveable - vertebrae and pubic bone

full ROM

diathroses joint have free movement - ball and socket joints (hip) - hinge joints (knee)

synovial joints

free moving joints are surrounded by joint capsules - most have bursae (sacs of fluid between bones of joint and tendons hold muscle in place)

muscle

tissue composed of cells - contract and relax -

muscle funtions

allow skeleton to move - responsible for movement of organs - pump blood to circulatory system

extension - muscle action

increase angle of joint

flexion - muscle action

decrease angle of joint

abduction - muscle action

movement away from midline

adduction - muscle action

movement toward midline

supination - muscle action

turning palm or foot upward

pronation - muiscle action

turning palm or foot downward

dorsiflexion - muscle action

raising foot , pulling toes toward the shin

plantar flexion - muscle action

lowering the foot , pointing toes away from shin

eversion - muscle action

turning outward

inversion - muscle action

turning inward

protraction - muscle action

moving a part of the body forward

retraction - muscle action

moving a part of the body backward

rotation - muscle action

revolving a bone around its axis

fracture

broken bone - result of trauma - diseases like cancer can also cause fracture

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