Ch 9 Milady's 2008 Properties of the Hair & Scalp

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Trichology

the scientific study of the hair, it's diseases, and its care

Integument

The hair, skin and nails is collectively known as the

Root
Shaft

A mature stand of hair is divided into what 2 parts?

Root

located below the surface of the scalp

Shaft

the portion of the hair that projects above the skin

Follicle
Bulb
Dermal Papilla
Arrector Pili
Sebaceous Glands

What are the 5 structures of the hair root?

Dermal Papilla

Which part of the root contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth?

Hair Bulb

*Thickened, club shape structure that forms the lower part of the hair root
*Lowest part of a hair strand

Follicle

*Tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root
*Surrounds the dermal papilla

Arrector Pili

Which muscle when contracted cause goosebumps?

Sebum

An oily substance secreted from the sebaceous glands that lubricate the hair and skin

Cuticle
Cortex
Medulla

What are the 3 main layers of the hair shaft?

Cuticle

What is the outermost layer of the hair?

Cuticle layer

*Provides a barrier that protects the inner structure of hair
*Creates shine and silkiness
*Looks like shingles on a roof

Protects hair from penetration & prevents damage to the hair fiber

What does a healthy cuticle layer protect?

In order to penetrate the cuticle layer, because a high pH swells the cuticle causing it to lift and expose the cortex

Why must haircolors,permanent waving solutions and chemical hair relaxers have an alkaline pH?

The middle layer

Which layer of the hair is the cortex?

90%

What % of weight of the hair comes from the cortex?

Cortex

In what layer of the hair do changes involving oxidation haircolor, wet setting thermal styling, permanent waving and chemicle hair relaxing take place?

Medulla

The innermost layer of the hair that is composed of round cells

Protein

Hair is composed of ________ that grows from cells originating within the hair follicle.

Keratinization

The maturation of these cells is a process called

Living cells mature through Keratinization. As they mature, they fill up with keratin, then move upward, lose their nucleus and die.

Explain why hair is not a living thing.

Carbon 51%
Oxygen 21%
Hydrogen 6%
Nitrogen 17%
Sulfur 5%

What are the main elements that make up human hair and their percentages in normal hair?
*COHNS Elements*

Amino Acid

*The unit of structure that builds protein
*Linked together end to end like pop beads

Helix

The spiral shape of a coiled protein

Peptide Bond

*The chemical bond that links amino acids
*Also called an end bond

Polypeptide Chain

*A long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
*Cross linked like the rungs on ladder by 3 different kinds of salt bonds

Hydrogen Bond
Salt Bond
Disulfide Bond

Polypeptide chains are cross-linked together using 3 different types of cross links called

Hydrogen Bond

*A weak physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat
*Weakest of all bonds
*Creates a TEMPORARY physical change in the hair
*Account for 1/3 of the hair's overall strength

Salt Bonds

*Weak , TEMP side bonds between adjacent polypeptide chains
*Greatly affected by changes in pH
*Cause the hair to sell and the cuticle to lift

Disulfide

*A strong chemical side bond that joins the sulfur atom of 2 neighboring cysteine amino acids to create cystine
*2nd strongest bond in hair, also called a sulfur bond
*NOT broken by heat or water
*Altered only by salon chemicals. Permanent waving, etc solutions break and rearrange these bonds

Lanthionine Bonds

*The bonds created when disulfide bonds are broken by hydroxide chemical hair relaxers after the relaxer is rinsed from the hair.
*Broken PERMANENTLY and can never be reformed

Cortex

The layer of the hair that all natural color is located in

Melanin

tiny grains of pigment that give natural color to hair

Eumalanin
Pheomelanin

What are the 2 types of melanin?

Eumalanin

provides brown and black color to hair

Pheomelanin

provides color ranging from red and ginger to yellow/blond tones

Wave Pattern

Refers to the shape of the hair strand and is described as straight, wavy, curly or extremely curly

Genetics

Natural wave pattern is the result of _______.

Oval

In extremely curly hair, cross sections are highly _____ and vary in shape and thickness along their length.

Texture
Porosity
Elasticity
Density

What are the 4 most important factors to consider in hair analysis?

Texture

Thickness/diameter of the individual hair strand

Porosity

The ability to absorb moisture

Elasticity

The ability of the hair to stretch and return to it's original length without breaking

Density

measures the number of hair strands on 1 square inch of the scalp

Course
Medium
Fine

What are the 3 classifications of hair texture?

Course

*Has largest diameter
*More difficult to process

Medium

*Most common
*No special problems or concerns

Fine

*Smallest diameter
*Most fragile
*Easily processes

Low
Medium
High

Hair density can be classified as?

2200

What is the average hair density per square inch?

100,000

How many hairs does the average head contain?

The condition of the cuticle layer

What is the degree of porosity directly related to?

Porous

______ hair has a raised cuticle that easily absorbs moisture

Less akaline solutions

Chemical services performed on overly porous hair require what type of solutions?

Normal

Hair with average porosity is considered ______.

Overly porous hair

What type of hair is damaged, dry, fragile and brittle?

How to check for porosity

Take a strand from 4 different areas (front, hairline, temple, crown and nape). Hold the strand with one hand while sliding thumb and forefinger of other hand from end to scalp

If it feels smooth...

and the cuticle is compact, dense and hard it is considered resistant.

If you can feel a slight roughness...

it is considered porous.

If the hair feels very rough or dry or breaks...

it is considered highly porous and may have been overly processed.

50%

Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to ____ of it's original length and return without breaking.

20%

How much does dry hair stretch?

False

Hair follicles always from perpendicular (90 degree angle) to the scalp

Hair stream

Hair following in the same direction

Whorl

Hair that forms in a circular pattern

Cowlick

A tuft of hair that stands straight up

Overactive sebaceous glands
Improper shampooing

What causes oily hair and scalp?

Inactive sebaceous glands
Excessive shampooing
Dry air/climate

What cause dry hair and scalp?

Vellus
Terminal

What are the 2 types of hair found on the body?

Vellus

*Short, fine and downy
*Not pigmented
*Almost never has a medulla
*Usually found on infants and young children
*In adults, it's found on most areas of body, not including scalp

Terminal

*Courser than vellus
*It's pigmented with the exception of grey hair
*Usually has a medulla

Scalp
Legs
Arms
Pelvis area

Where is terminal hair found?

Anagen
Catagen
Telogen

What are the 3 phases of a hair cycle?
*A.C.T.*

Anagen

*The growth phase of hair (when new hair is produced)
*Generally last from 3-5 years but can last up to 10 years

90%

What percentage of hair is in the anagen phase at any given time?

Catagen

*The brief transition period between the growth and resting phases
*Signals the end of the growth phase
*Last from 1 -2 weeks

Telegen

*The resting phase
*Final phase and lasts until the fully grown hair is shed
*Last approx. 3-6 months

1/2 inch

What is the average growth of healthy hair per month?

1%

What percentage is in the catagen phase at any one time?

10 %

What percentage is in the telogen phase at any one tim

Alopecia

Abnormal hair loss

Androgenic/Androgenetic alopecia

*Causes miniaturization of terminal hair, converting it to vellus
*The result of genetics, age and hormonal changes

Male Pattern Baldness

*In men, Androgentic Alopecia is known as______.
*It usually progresses to the familiar horseshoe shaped fringe of hair.

40%

How many people does androgenic alopecia affect in the United States?

Alopecia Areata

*The sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spots
*May occur on the scalp and elsewear on the body

Postpartum Alopecia

A temporary hair loss experienced at the conclusion of a pregnancy

Minoxidil (Men & Women)
Finasteride (Men Only)

What are the only 2 products that have been proven to stimulate hair growth and are approved by the FDA?

Transplants

*Most common surgical procedure for hair loss
*Consist of removing small sections of hair usually from the back and transplanting into the bald area

Wigs
Toupees
Hair Weaving
Hair Extensions

What non-medical options can a hairstylists offer to counter hair loss?

Canites

Technical term for grey hair

Ringed Hair

A variety of canites characterized by alternating bands of grey and pigmented hair through out the length of the hair strand.

Hypertrichosis

*Also known as Hirsuties
*A condition of abnormal hair growth
*Characterized by the growth terminal hair in areas where only vellus hair grows
*ex, mustache, beard on women

Trichoptilosis

Technical term for split ends

Trichoptilosis Nodosa

*Knotted hair
*Characterized by brittleness and the formation of nodular swellings along the hair shaft.
*Hair breaks easily, and the broken fibers spread out like a brush along the hair shaft

Monilethrix

*Technical term for beaded hair
*The hair breaks easily between the beads or nodes.

Fragilitas Crinium

*Technical term for brittle hair
*The hairs may split at any part of it's length.

Congential
Aquired

What are the 2 types of canities?

Pityriasis

Medical term for dandruff

Tinea

Medical term for ringworm

Tinea Capitis

*Ringworm of the scalp
*Fungal infection characterized by red papules or spots at the opening of the hair follicles

Scabies

Caused by a parasite called a mite that burrows under the skin

Pediculosis Capitis

Head lice

Furuncle

An acute, localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle

Carbuncle

An inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci

Malassezia

naturally occuring fungus that is present on all human skin, and is responsible for dandruff

Pityriasis Capitis Simplex

technical term for classic dandruff, characterized by scalp irritation, large flake and itchy scalp

Pityriasis Steatoides

a severe type of dandruff characterized by an accumulation of greasy or waxy scalp scales mixed with sebum

Tinea

*Characterized by itching, scales and sometimes painful circular lesions
*Very contagious

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