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Protestant Episcopal Church

New name for the Anglican Church after it was disestablished and de- Anglicized in Virginia and elsewhere

Republican Motherhood

The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children

Constitutional Convention

A type of special assembly, originally developed in Massachusetts, for drawing up a fundamental law that would be superior to ordinary law

Articles of Confederation

The first constitutional government of the United States

Old Northwest

The territory north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi governed by the act of 1785-1787

sections

In the new territories, six-mile by six-mile square areas consisting of thirty-six sections, one of which was set aside for public schools

territory

the status of a western area under the Northwest Ordinance after it established an organized government but before it became a state

Shays' Rebellion

A failed revolt in 1786 by poor debtor farmers that raised fears of "mobocracy"

Large State Plan

the plan proposed by Virginia at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with representation base on population. (Also known as the Virginia Plan.)

Small State Plan

the plan provided for equal representation in Congress. (Also known as the New Jersey Plan.)

Three fifths Compromise

the compromise between North and South that resulted in each slave being counted as 60 percent of a free person for purposes of representation

Bill of Rights

a list of guarantees that federalists promised to add to the Constitution in order to win ratification

Society of the Cincinnati

An exclusive order of military officers that aroused strong democratic opposition

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

Legislation passed by an alliance of Jefferson and the Baptists that disestablished the Anglican church

Articles of Confederation

Document of 1781, first written government of the US, that was put out of business by the Constitution

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Created for the Northwest Territory , legislation that provided for the orderly transformation of western territories into states.

Benjamin Franklin

Elder statesman who lent his prestige to the Constitutional Convention and promoted the "Great Compromise"

Daniel Shays

A Revolutionary war veteran who led poor farmers in a revolt that failed but had far-reaching consequences

George Washington

Unanimously elected chairman of the secret convention of "demi gods" = Constitutional Convention

James Madison

"The father of the Constitution" and author of Federalist No. 10

federalists

Wealthy conservatives devoted to republicanism who engineered a nonviolent political transformation

antifederalist

Group that failed to block the central government they feared but did force the promise of a bill of rights

Patrick Henry

Virginia antifederalist leader who thought the Constitution spelled the end of liberty and equality

Alexander Hamilton

Young New Yorker who argued eloquently for the Constitution even though he favored an even stronger central government

John Jay

Frustrated foreign affairs secretary under the Articles; one of the three authors of The Federalist

Massachusetts

First of key states where federalists won by a narrow margin over the opposition of antifederalist Sam Adams

New York

The only state to allow a direct vote on the Constitution

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