Sensation and Perception

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sensation

The immediate response in the brain caused by excitation of a sensory organ is called ___________.

data-reduction system

A ______ _________ __________ is a system that selects, analyzes, and condenses information. Eyes, ears, tongues, noses and skin are all examples of this.

Transduction

_______ is the process of converting one king of energy to another.

transducer

A _______ is a device that converts one kind of energy into another. Sensory receptors are examples of these. They usually convert it to electrical and chemical energy.

Localization of function

_________ __ ________ means that the type of sensation you experience depends on the area of the brain that is activated.

Psychophysics

________ is the study of sensation.

Absolute threshold

The _________ __________ is the minimum amount of physical energy needed in order to produce a sensation.

perceptual defense

Unpleasant stimuli may raise the threshold for recognition. The resistance to perceiving threatening or disturbing stimuli, such as "dirty" words, is called ________ ________.

limen

Anytime information is processed below the normal _____ (the threshold or limit) for awareness, it is subliminal.

Subliminal perception

_______ _________ is the perception of a stimulus below the threshold for conscious recognition.

just noticeable difference (JND)

How much a stimulus must change for it to be noticed is called a _____ _________ ________.

Weber's law

JND's led to________ _____, which states that the amount of change needed to produce a JND is a constant proportion of the original stimulus intensity.

visual spectrum

The _____ _______ of electromagnetic radiation receives and converts wave lengths into color.

400 (nanometers)

Starting at about ____ (short), the color seen is red.

700 (nanometers)

Ending at about _____ (long), the color seen is violet.

Hue

____ is the basic ways color is categorized.

Saturation

_________ is the degree of a color's purity.

Brightness

________ is the intensity of colors.

cornea

The front of the eye is covered by a clear membrane called the _____.

lens

The ____ bends the light that enters the eye.

retina

The _____ is the back of the eye.

accommodation

Smaller adjustments in focusing occur as the shape of the lens is altered by a series of muscles, a process called ________ - changes in the shape of the lens of the eye.

hyperopia

If the eye is too short, nearby objects cannot be focused, but distant objects are clear. This is called ______, or farsightedness.

myopia

If the eye is too long, the image falls shot of the retina, and distant objects cannot be focused. This results in _____, or nearsightedness.

astigmatism

When the cornea is misshapen, part of the visual field will be focused and one part will be fuzzy. In this case, the eye has more than one focal point, a problem called _________.

presbyopia

As people age, the lens becomes less flexible and less able to accommodate. This results in _____, old vision or farsightedness with age.

iris

The ____ is the colored circular muscle that expands and contracts.

pupil

As the iris dilates and constricts, it changes the size of the _____, where light enters.

rods

Photo-receptors called ____, numbering about 100 million, are unable to detect colors. They detect black and white and are sensitive to light and movement.

cones

The _____, numbering about 6.5 million in each eye, work best in bright light. They also produce color sensations and pick up fine details.

fovea

50,000 cones are located in the ______, a cup-shaped area located in the retina. Here, visual acuity is at its greatest.

Peripheral vision

Rods make up your ______ _______. Areas outside the fovea also get light, which creates this type of vision. It is sensitive to motion, but sees in black and white because it is considered "rod vision."

blind spot

Each eye has a ____ _____ because there are no receptors where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

visual acuity

The rods and cones affect _____ ______, or sharpness.

trichromatic theory

The _________ ______ of color holds that there are three types of cones, each most sensitive to red, green, or blue. Other colors are produced through combinations of these.

Opponent-process theory

_______ ______ ______ states that vision analyzes color into "either-or" messages. It is assumed that the visual system can produce messages for red or green, blue or yellow, black or white.

color-blind

A person who is ____ ____ cannot perceive colors. The person either lacks cones or has cones that do not work properly.

color weakness

In ____ ______, the person is unable to distinguish some colors.

Ishihara test

The ______ ___ tests for color-blindness or color weakness.

Dark adaptation

____ _________ is the dramatic increase in retinal sensitivity to light that occurs after a person enters the dark. With this, the eye becomes 100,000 times more sensitive to light within about 45 minutes.

Night vision

______ _____ is due mainly to an increase in rhodopsin.

Rhodopsin

_______ is the rod pigment that produces night vision.

Compressions and rarefactions

Sound travels in a series of invisible waves in the air of peaks and valleys, or ________ and _______.

Frequency

______ of sound waves determines their pitch.

amplitude

The _______ determines loudness.

pinna

The _____ is the visible, external part of the ear. It acts like a funnel to concentrate sounds.

tympanic membrane (eardrum)

After they are guided into the ear, sound waves collide with the _______ _____, which is set in motion.

auditory ossicles

The bones in the inner ear are called the _____ _______.

Malleus, incus, and stapes

The bones in the ear are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, or the ______, ______, and _______.

oval window

The stapes is attached to a membrane on the cochlea called the ____ _______. As it moves back and forth, it make waves in a fluid inside the cochlea.

cochlea

The _____ is a snail-shaped organ that makes up the inner ear. It is where hearing really occurs.

organ of Corti

The _____ __ _____ makes up the inner part of the cochlea. Hair cells are apart of this structure.

stereocilia

Bristles atop each hair cell in the inner ear are called _______. The hair cells brush up against the tectoral membrane when waves ripple through the fluid surrounding the organ of Corti. Impulses are fired from the when the hair cells are brushed.

frequency theory

The _______ _____ of hearing states that as pitch rises, nerve impulses of the same frequency are fed into the auditory nerves.

place theory

The _____ ______ states that higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea.

Conduction deafness

______ _______ occurs when there is poor transfer of sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear.

Nerve deafness

_____ _______ results from damage to the hair cells or auditory nerve.

Stimulation deafness

_______ ______ occurs when very loud sounds damage the hair cells in the cochlea.

cochlear implant

A artificial hearing system is making is possible for some people with nerve deafness to break through the wall of silence, called a _____ ______.

Tinnitus

______ is the ringing or buzzing sensation in the ears that results from exposure to high noises.

Olfaction

______ is the sense of smell.

Gustation

________ is the sense of taste.

Anosmia

_____ is the inability to smell.

lock and key theory

Researchers discovered that different-shaped "holes" or "pockets" exist on the surface of olfactory receptors. Like a piece fits in a puzzle, chemicals produce odors when part of a molecule matches a hole of the same shape. This is called the _____ __ _____ _____.

pheromones

In humans, it is believed that ________ are feelings of well-being, attraction, aversion, unease, or anxiety.

Taste buds

_____ _____ are receptors for gustation.

Somesthetic senses

_______ ______ are sensational produced by the skin, muscles, joints, viscera, and organs of balance.

kinesthetic organs

The ______ _____ are receptors in muscles and joints that detect body position and movement.

vestibular system

The ______ ______, located in the inner ear, is responsible for balance and detecting gravity and acceleration.

Skin receptors

______ _______ produce at least five different sensations: light touch, pressure, pain, cold, and warmth.

pain

The skin has the most nerve endings for ____, at about 3 million.

Visceral pain

_______ ____ is felt on the surface of the body that is stimulated by pain fibers in internal organs.

Referred pain

______ _____ is pain felt on the surface of the body, away from the point of origin.

Somatic

_______ pain is sharp pain.

warning system

Somatic pain that is carried by large nerve fibers is the body's ______ ______. Without this, we would be unable to detect or prevent injury.

reminding system

Somatic pain that is carried by small nerve fibers is slower, nagging, aching, widespread, and unpleasant. This is the body's _______ ______. It reminds the brain that the body has been hurt.

Sensory adaptation

_______ ______ is a decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus.

boiled-frog syndrome

The _____ ____ _______ states that changes go unnoticed when they are gradually increased.

Selective attention

_____ ______ is the voluntary focus on a specific sensory input.

sensory gating

In particular, _____ _____ refers to facilitating or blocking sensory messages in the spinal cord.

Acupuncture

_______ is the Chinese medical art of reliving pain and illness by inserting needles into the body.

beta-endorphin

To combat the pain of acupuncture, the brain causes the pituitary gland to release a painkilling chemical called ____ ______, which is similar to morphine.

pain

People can reduce the amount of ____ they receive in anxiety, control, attention, and interpretation.

Sensory-conflict theory

________ ______ _______ states that motion sickness results from the different incoming information the eyes and the vestibular system experience.

Perception

_______ is the mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns.

Size constancy

____ ______ is when the perceived size of an object remains the same despite changes in the size of the image it casts on the retina.

Brightness constancy

______ ______ refers to the fact that the apparent brightness of the object stays the same under changing light conditions. However, this only happens when the object and surrounding objects are illuminated by the same amount of light.

Figure-ground organization

_____ _____ _______ is part of a stimulus that appears to stand out as an object (figure) against a less permanent background (ground).

reversible figure

A _____ _____ is a figure and ground that can be reversed.

nearness

In ______, all other things being equal, stimuli that are near each other tend to be constructed, or grouped, together.

similarity

In ______, stimuli that are similar in size, shape, color, or from tend to be grouped together.

continuity

Perceptions tend toward simplicity and ______.

Closure

______ refers to the tendency to complete a figure so that it has a consistent form.

Contiguity

______ is nearness in time and space. It is often responsible for the perception that one thing has caused another.

common region

In _____ ____, stimuli that are found within a common area tend to be seen as a group.

perceptual hypothesis

A ______ ______ is an initial peak or guess about how to organize sensations.

Ambiguous stimuli

________ ______ are patterns allowing for more than one interpretation.

Depth perception

_____ ________ is the ability to see 3-D space and to accurately judge distances.

visual cliff

A _____ ____ is an apparatus that looks like the edge of an elevated platform or cliff.

Empirical perception

______ ______ is a perception strongly influenced by prior experience.

Native perception

_____ _______ is a perceptual experience based on innate processes. It is what you are born with.

monocular depth cue

A _______ ____ ___ is depth cue that can be sensed with one eye.

binocular depth cue

A ________ _____ ___ is a depth cue that can be sensed with two eyes.

Stereoscopic vision

_______ ______ is three-dimensional sight (binocular).

Retinal disparity

_______ _____ is the discrepancy in the images that reach the right and left eye (binocular).

Pictoral cues for depth

______ ___ for ____ are features found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that supply information about space, depth, and distance.

Linear perspective

______ ________ is based on the apparent convergence of parallel lines in environment. (Example; train tracks going off in the distance).

relative size

To demonstrate _____ ____, an artist must make the more distance object smaller

light and shadow

The use of ______ and _______ give 2-D designs a 3-D appearance.

Overlap

________ (or interposition) is when one object partially blocks another to create depth.

Texture

______ changes can contribute to depth perception; coarse implies closeness, fine implies distance.

aerial perspective

In ______ ____________, distant objects tend to be hazy, washed out in color, and lacking detail.

relative motion

In ______ ________, nearby objects move a lot as your head moves; distant objects move slightly.

moon illusion

In the ____ _______, apparent changes in the size of the moon occur as it moves from the horizon to overhead. There are more depth cues at the horizon compared to overhead.

apparent distance hypothesis

The ______ ________ ________ states that the horizon seems more distant than the night sky.

Perceptual habits

________ ______ are ingrained patterns of organization and attention that affect our daily experience.

adaptation level

Your _________ _____ (the "medium point" of your personal form of reference) is modified by experience. If mot of the weights you lift in a day-to-day life average around 10 pounds, you will call a 10-pound weight "medium."

Context

______ refers to information surrounding a stimulus.

frame of reference

A _____ __ ______ is the internal standard for judging stimuli.

illusion

In an ______, length, position, motion, curvature, or direction is constantly misjudged.

hallucination

A ________ is when people perceive objects or events that have no external basis in reality.

stroboscopic movement

In ________ _______, illusory movement is perceived when objects are shown in rapidly changing positions.

Muller-Lyer illusion

In the ______ _____ _______, two equal length lines topped with inward or outward pointing V's appear to be of different length. It is based on experience with edges and corners of rooms and buildings.

size-distance invariance

The ____ _______ ____ hypothesis explains the moon illusion and its formula.

Selective attention

_______ ________ refers to the fact that we give some messages priority and put others on hold.

Divided attention

_______ ________ arises when you must divide your mental effort among tasks, each of which requires more or less attention (multi-tasking).

Habituation

________ is a decrease in perceptual response to a repeated stimuli.

orientation response (OR)

An _______ _______ prepares us to receive information from a stimulus: the pupils enlarge, bran wave patterns shift, breathing stops briefly, blood flow to the head increases, and we turn toward the stimulus. (Ex. a double take).

Bottom-up processing

_____ ___ _______ is the process of analyzing information starting at the bottom (small units) and going upward to from a complete perception (Inductive reasoning, pointillism, or impressionism).

Top-down processing

____ _____ ______ is the process pf using pre-existing knowledge to rapidly organize features into a meaningful whole (Deductive reasoning or in order to run, you must walk)

perceptual expectancy

A _______ ________ or set is a readiness to perceive in a particular manner, which is included by strong expectations.

Eyewitnesses

_______ aren't as accurate as we think because of these factors that affect their accuracy: stress, weapon focus, exposure time, confidence, cross-racial perceptions, post-event information, color perception, unconscious transference, alcohol intoxication, and attitudes and expectations.

Weapon focus

_______ _____ is the focus on a weapon that impairs the eyewitness' accuracy.

Dishabituation

_______ is the reversal of habituation.

Parapsychology

_______ is the study of ESP and other psi phenomena.

Clairvoyance

_______ is the purported ability to perceive events unaffected by distance or physical barriers.

Telepathy

______ is the purported ability to read minds.

Precognition

________ is the purported ability to predict the future.

Psychokinesis

_________ is the purported ability to influence objects by willpower.

Zener cards

_____ ____ have 25 cards, each having one of five symbols.

ESP

____ is extra sensory perception.

Maslow's theory of perceptual awareness

______ _____ __ _______ ________ states that people with an accurate view of themselves tend to be more open, healthy, and avoid criticism.

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