The immediate response in the brain caused by excitation of a sensory organ is called ___________.
A ______ _________ __________ is a system that selects, analyzes, and condenses information. Eyes, ears, tongues, noses and skin are all examples of this.
A _______ is a device that converts one kind of energy into another. Sensory receptors are examples of these. They usually convert it to electrical and chemical energy.
Localization of function
_________ __ ________ means that the type of sensation you experience depends on the area of the brain that is activated.
The _________ __________ is the minimum amount of physical energy needed in order to produce a sensation.
Unpleasant stimuli may raise the threshold for recognition. The resistance to perceiving threatening or disturbing stimuli, such as "dirty" words, is called ________ ________.
Anytime information is processed below the normal _____ (the threshold or limit) for awareness, it is subliminal.
_______ _________ is the perception of a stimulus below the threshold for conscious recognition.
just noticeable difference (JND)
How much a stimulus must change for it to be noticed is called a _____ _________ ________.
JND's led to________ _____, which states that the amount of change needed to produce a JND is a constant proportion of the original stimulus intensity.
The _____ _______ of electromagnetic radiation receives and converts wave lengths into color.
Smaller adjustments in focusing occur as the shape of the lens is altered by a series of muscles, a process called ________ - changes in the shape of the lens of the eye.
If the eye is too short, nearby objects cannot be focused, but distant objects are clear. This is called ______, or farsightedness.
If the eye is too long, the image falls shot of the retina, and distant objects cannot be focused. This results in _____, or nearsightedness.
When the cornea is misshapen, part of the visual field will be focused and one part will be fuzzy. In this case, the eye has more than one focal point, a problem called _________.
As people age, the lens becomes less flexible and less able to accommodate. This results in _____, old vision or farsightedness with age.
Photo-receptors called ____, numbering about 100 million, are unable to detect colors. They detect black and white and are sensitive to light and movement.
The _____, numbering about 6.5 million in each eye, work best in bright light. They also produce color sensations and pick up fine details.
50,000 cones are located in the ______, a cup-shaped area located in the retina. Here, visual acuity is at its greatest.
Rods make up your ______ _______. Areas outside the fovea also get light, which creates this type of vision. It is sensitive to motion, but sees in black and white because it is considered "rod vision."
Each eye has a ____ _____ because there are no receptors where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
The _________ ______ of color holds that there are three types of cones, each most sensitive to red, green, or blue. Other colors are produced through combinations of these.
_______ ______ ______ states that vision analyzes color into "either-or" messages. It is assumed that the visual system can produce messages for red or green, blue or yellow, black or white.
A person who is ____ ____ cannot perceive colors. The person either lacks cones or has cones that do not work properly.
____ _________ is the dramatic increase in retinal sensitivity to light that occurs after a person enters the dark. With this, the eye becomes 100,000 times more sensitive to light within about 45 minutes.
Compressions and rarefactions
Sound travels in a series of invisible waves in the air of peaks and valleys, or ________ and _______.
The _____ is the visible, external part of the ear. It acts like a funnel to concentrate sounds.
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
After they are guided into the ear, sound waves collide with the _______ _____, which is set in motion.
Malleus, incus, and stapes
The bones in the ear are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, or the ______, ______, and _______.
The stapes is attached to a membrane on the cochlea called the ____ _______. As it moves back and forth, it make waves in a fluid inside the cochlea.
The _____ is a snail-shaped organ that makes up the inner ear. It is where hearing really occurs.
organ of Corti
The _____ __ _____ makes up the inner part of the cochlea. Hair cells are apart of this structure.
Bristles atop each hair cell in the inner ear are called _______. The hair cells brush up against the tectoral membrane when waves ripple through the fluid surrounding the organ of Corti. Impulses are fired from the when the hair cells are brushed.
The _______ _____ of hearing states that as pitch rises, nerve impulses of the same frequency are fed into the auditory nerves.
The _____ ______ states that higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea.
______ _______ occurs when there is poor transfer of sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear.
_______ ______ occurs when very loud sounds damage the hair cells in the cochlea.
A artificial hearing system is making is possible for some people with nerve deafness to break through the wall of silence, called a _____ ______.
______ is the ringing or buzzing sensation in the ears that results from exposure to high noises.
lock and key theory
Researchers discovered that different-shaped "holes" or "pockets" exist on the surface of olfactory receptors. Like a piece fits in a puzzle, chemicals produce odors when part of a molecule matches a hole of the same shape. This is called the _____ __ _____ _____.
In humans, it is believed that ________ are feelings of well-being, attraction, aversion, unease, or anxiety.
_______ ______ are sensational produced by the skin, muscles, joints, viscera, and organs of balance.
The ______ _____ are receptors in muscles and joints that detect body position and movement.
The ______ ______, located in the inner ear, is responsible for balance and detecting gravity and acceleration.
______ _______ produce at least five different sensations: light touch, pressure, pain, cold, and warmth.
_______ ____ is felt on the surface of the body that is stimulated by pain fibers in internal organs.
Somatic pain that is carried by large nerve fibers is the body's ______ ______. Without this, we would be unable to detect or prevent injury.
Somatic pain that is carried by small nerve fibers is slower, nagging, aching, widespread, and unpleasant. This is the body's _______ ______. It reminds the brain that the body has been hurt.
The _____ ____ _______ states that changes go unnoticed when they are gradually increased.
In particular, _____ _____ refers to facilitating or blocking sensory messages in the spinal cord.
_______ is the Chinese medical art of reliving pain and illness by inserting needles into the body.
To combat the pain of acupuncture, the brain causes the pituitary gland to release a painkilling chemical called ____ ______, which is similar to morphine.
People can reduce the amount of ____ they receive in anxiety, control, attention, and interpretation.
________ ______ _______ states that motion sickness results from the different incoming information the eyes and the vestibular system experience.
____ ______ is when the perceived size of an object remains the same despite changes in the size of the image it casts on the retina.
______ ______ refers to the fact that the apparent brightness of the object stays the same under changing light conditions. However, this only happens when the object and surrounding objects are illuminated by the same amount of light.
_____ _____ _______ is part of a stimulus that appears to stand out as an object (figure) against a less permanent background (ground).
In ______, all other things being equal, stimuli that are near each other tend to be constructed, or grouped, together.
In ______, stimuli that are similar in size, shape, color, or from tend to be grouped together.
______ is nearness in time and space. It is often responsible for the perception that one thing has caused another.
In _____ ____, stimuli that are found within a common area tend to be seen as a group.
A _____ ____ is an apparatus that looks like the edge of an elevated platform or cliff.
_____ _______ is a perceptual experience based on innate processes. It is what you are born with.
_______ _____ is the discrepancy in the images that reach the right and left eye (binocular).
Pictoral cues for depth
______ ___ for ____ are features found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that supply information about space, depth, and distance.
______ ________ is based on the apparent convergence of parallel lines in environment. (Example; train tracks going off in the distance).
______ changes can contribute to depth perception; coarse implies closeness, fine implies distance.
In ______ ____________, distant objects tend to be hazy, washed out in color, and lacking detail.
In ______ ________, nearby objects move a lot as your head moves; distant objects move slightly.
In the ____ _______, apparent changes in the size of the moon occur as it moves from the horizon to overhead. There are more depth cues at the horizon compared to overhead.
apparent distance hypothesis
The ______ ________ ________ states that the horizon seems more distant than the night sky.
________ ______ are ingrained patterns of organization and attention that affect our daily experience.
Your _________ _____ (the "medium point" of your personal form of reference) is modified by experience. If mot of the weights you lift in a day-to-day life average around 10 pounds, you will call a 10-pound weight "medium."
A ________ is when people perceive objects or events that have no external basis in reality.
In ________ _______, illusory movement is perceived when objects are shown in rapidly changing positions.
In the ______ _____ _______, two equal length lines topped with inward or outward pointing V's appear to be of different length. It is based on experience with edges and corners of rooms and buildings.
The ____ _______ ____ hypothesis explains the moon illusion and its formula.
_______ ________ refers to the fact that we give some messages priority and put others on hold.
_______ ________ arises when you must divide your mental effort among tasks, each of which requires more or less attention (multi-tasking).
orientation response (OR)
An _______ _______ prepares us to receive information from a stimulus: the pupils enlarge, bran wave patterns shift, breathing stops briefly, blood flow to the head increases, and we turn toward the stimulus. (Ex. a double take).
_____ ___ _______ is the process of analyzing information starting at the bottom (small units) and going upward to from a complete perception (Inductive reasoning, pointillism, or impressionism).
____ _____ ______ is the process pf using pre-existing knowledge to rapidly organize features into a meaningful whole (Deductive reasoning or in order to run, you must walk)
A _______ ________ or set is a readiness to perceive in a particular manner, which is included by strong expectations.
_______ aren't as accurate as we think because of these factors that affect their accuracy: stress, weapon focus, exposure time, confidence, cross-racial perceptions, post-event information, color perception, unconscious transference, alcohol intoxication, and attitudes and expectations.
_______ is the purported ability to perceive events unaffected by distance or physical barriers.