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Thomas Jefferson

made the Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark were sent to explore the newly acquired land, the Barbary Pirate threat was silenced, and the Embargo Act was passed. he always put the country ahead of himself. His patriotism and loyalty to the U.S.

William Marbury

President Adams named him a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. sued James Madison when he learned his appointment would never take place.

Napoleon Bonaparte

French Leader from 1799 to 1815. Was ambitious: wanted to dominate Europe and own US. Led France into Napoleonic Wars.

Zebulon Pike

A pioneer who explored the Louisiana territory between 1805 - 1807. He explored Colorado, New Mexico, & Mississippi. He was a leader of the new land.

John Marshall

Appointed by John Adams (1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians. (Served 30 days under Federalist administration and 34 years under the Jeffersonians and their successors) The Federalists died out but Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. IMPORTANT ACT- Although he dismissed the Marbury suit ( 1801) to avoid direct political showdown, he said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional.

Samuel Chase

a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. A lawyer by profession, in 1796 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by president Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1791. In 1804, for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials.

Lewis and Clark

Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806. They traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration.

Aaron Burr

a running mate with Thomas Jefferson. They tied for the presidency. Jefferson won the run off. killed Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. He was tried and acquitted for treason involving a plan to separate the US and combine with Spain

James Monroe

sent to Paris in 1803 to buy New Orleans and as much land as possible to the east for a maximum of ten million dollars. Spent $15 million for all of Louisiana. Later became John Adams Sec. of state.

Robert Livingston

bought New Orleans and all the French territory west of the Mississippi River from Napoleon for 15 million dollars. He was only supposed to negotiate for a small part of New Orleans for 10 million so Jefferson was upset when he heard about Livingston's deal.

Sacagawea

When Lewis & Clark were staying with the Mandans, an Indian woman was there as well. She belonged to the Shoshone people who lived in the Rockies. She and her French Canadian husband agreed to accompany Lewis and Clark as translators.

Tecumseh

Shawnee chief who tried to united Native American tribes in Ohio and Indiana against encroaching white rule. Failed.

Patronage

like the "spoils system." When an elected official fills appointed positions with friends that helped him/her get elected, it is considered

War hawks

Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.

Chesapeake incident

An incident that happened on June 22, 1807.a US frigate was boarded by a British ship, the Leopard. The British seized four alleged desertersTh This is the most famous example of impressment, in which the British seized American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships. Impressment was one of the major factors leading to the War of 1812.

Judicial review

Jefferson tried to give the rights to the states in the Kentucky resolutions, but his cousin, John Marshall of the Supreme Court, proposed which gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional. accepted as a result of the famous case of Marbury v. Madison

Judiciary Act of 1789

In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.

Marbury v. Madison

Sec. of State James Madison held up one of John Adams' "Midnight Judges" appointments. The appointment was for a Justice of the Peace position for William Marbury. Marbury sued. Fellow Hamiltonian and Chief Justice John Marshall dismissed Marbury's suit, avoiding a political showdown and magnifying the power of the Court. This case cleared up controversy over who had final say in interpreting the Constitution: the states did not, the Supreme Court did. This is judicial review.

Impeachment

to accuse a public official of misconduct in office.

Judiciary Act of 1801

allowed the president, then President Adams, would stay up until midnight signing in new federal judges across the nation. It allowed the Federalists to still maintain power in the nation after they were a minority party in congress.

Embargo Act

a law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britain and France had been continuously harassing the U.S. and seizing U.S. ship's and men.

Impressment

the forcible enlistment of soldiers. This was a rude form of conscription that the British have employed for over four hundred years.

Orders in Council

a law passed by the English Parliament in 1793.The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn't get supplies. American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy. This lead to the War of 1812.

Louisiana Purchase Treaty

In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for 15 million dollars from Napoleon the leader of France. The land mass stretched from the Gulf of Mexico all the to Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land sprouted national pride and ensured expansion.

Economic coercion

cut off all trade with England and everyone else. Jefferson hoped this would force the English to come to his terms and stop stealing American sailors. This, however, did not work and greatly hurt American trade.

Macon's Bill No. 2

intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. The law lifted all embargoes with Britain or France

"Midnight judges"

a nick name given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms

Non-Intercourse Act

Formally reopened trade with all nations except England and France on March 1, 1809. A replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Republican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of America.

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