Chemistry 621A - Chapter 21 - Electrochemistry

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Electrochemical process

the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical energy; all electrochemical processes involve redox reactions

Electrochemical Cell

Any device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical energy

Voltaic Cell

An electrochemical cell used to convert chemical energy into electrical energy; the energy is produced by a spontaneous redox reaction

Half-Cell

the part of a voltaic cell in which either oxidation or reduction occurs; it consists of a single electrode immersed in a solution of its ions

Salt Bridge

a tube containing a strong electrolyte used to separate the half-cells in a voltaic cell; it allows the passage of ions from one half-cell to the other but prevents the solutions from mixing completely

Electrode

A conductor in a circuit that carries electrons to or from a substance other than a metal

Anode

the electrode at which oxidation occurs

Cathode

the electrode at which reduction occurs

Dry Cell

a commercial voltaic cell in which the electrolyte is a moist paste. Example - Flashlight batteries

Battery

A group of voltaic cells that are connected to one another

Fuel cell

a voltaic cell that does not need to be recharged; the fuel is oxidized to produce a continuous supply of electrical energy

Electrical potential

the ability of a voltaic cell to produce an electrical current

Reduction Potential

a measure of the tendency of a given half-reaction to occur as a reduction (gain of electrons) in an electrochemical cell

Cell Potential

the difference between the reduction potentials of two half cells

Standard Cell Potential

The measured cell potential when an ion concentration in the half cells are 1.00M at 1ATM of pressure and 25C. (E cell)

Standard Hydrogen Electrode

An arbitrary reference electrode (half-cell) used with another electrode (half-cell) to measure the standard reduction potential of that cell; the standard reduction potential of a hydrogen electrode is assigned a value of 0.00V

Electrolysis

A process in which electrical energy is used to bring about a chemical change; the electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen

Electrolyte Cell

An electrochemical cell used to cause a chemical change through the application of electrical energy

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