Scientists who study the past human activity
Claylike material made from straw and mud baked in the sun in the shape of bricks for building.
a scientist who studies the origin, movement, and way of life of humans
Items left behind by another ancient culture. They can be but are not limited to tools, artwork, pottery, baskets, and shells
notched throwing stick used by hunters to propel spears farther and faster.
a union of people or groups.
the way groups of people express and conduct themselves
Canoes made from a tree, used primarily used by the Karankawas
to trace one's descent through the mother.
people who do not stay in one place but move around looking for food
people believed to have the power to summon spirits and cure the sick.
A hunting tactic in which prey was stealthily surrounded then ambushed in an ever tightening circle.
A shelter usually used by the Tiguas that were able to be packed up and carried off quickly.
a heavy cord that has many hooks attached to it and cast into a river or into the ocean.
Spanish soldiers who sought riches and power for themselves and glory for Spain.
members of Catholic religious orders who helped Spain gain a foothold in the Americas
an official who a monarch
a series of connected flat roofed buildings
an enclosure of posts made to form a defense
A ridge of sand built up by currents in a river or coastal waters
Spanish military outposts
one district of a country
A Spanish Settlement council
the chief official of a Spanish Settlement
people of mixed Spanish and Native American heritage.
people of Mexican heritage who consider Texas their home.
a working agreement
an individual that carries out rebellious activities in a foreign country.
setting something free
a government in which the power lies with the citizens, who vote for people to represent them.
to kill many at one time.
the mounted horse soldiers
far left side
companies of foot soldiers
Becoming a part of the United States
money paid out
Fund for universities
People that the president chooses to help him
The belief that the United States was destined to expand coast to coast.
Both parties agree on the resolution
people paid ion land or money to relocate settlers to an area- to bring colonists to Texas.
Food Products that are eaten on the farm where they are grown
established by a contract.
festival or religious celebration
nominating candidates at political meetings
the people that worked to end slavery
a count of the population
Confederate States of America
States that withdrew from the United States to fight the Union
The position that the federal government should not interfere with the constitutional rights of the states (such as slavery)
A party of the United States that was anti-slavery
Won the 1860 election as a Republican
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana
States that seceded from the Union
Texas Secession Convention
A convention to decided to secede from the Union
Ordinance of Secession
A decree from the Secession Convention; called for vote from the people in order to decide whether or not to secede from the Union
Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina
States that seceded from the Union after Texas did
A convention that made a new constitution for the Confederate States
The constitution made by the Montgomery Convention. States where given more power, and slavery was protected
The president of the Confederacy from Mississippi
Alexander H. Stephen
The vice president of the Confederacy
John H. Reagan
The postmaster general of the Confederacy
Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark
the governor of Texas during some of the Confederacy
Where the first shot of the Civil War was fired
Passed on April 16, 1862. See conscription
The forced enrollment of people into military service
James W. Throckmorton
Elected governor in 1866 to replace Edward Clark
Albert Sidney Johnston
commanded the army of the Republic of Texas
Battle of Shiloh
Where Johnston was killed
people who supported the Union
An African American Texan who won a medal of honor
Colonel Santos Benavides
A leader of Mexican American confederate soldiers
citizens who act as an unauthorized police power for an area
Prevents a possible future attack
Brigadier General H. Sibley
Led the New Mexico Campaign
To surround, and prevent the flow of goods
Most important sea port in Texas
John B. Magruder
A confederate commander of Texas who planned to retake Galveston
Bayou City and Neptune
Two gunboats, refitted to help retake Galveston
Location of Union vessels near Galveston.
Major General William B. Franklin
Union Commander who planned to take his troops near sabine pass
Fort on the Sabine Pass
In charge of a company of 47 soldiers
Company led by Dick Dowling
Colonel John S. Ford
Led the recapture of Brownsville
Path used by 25,000 union soldiers to march into East Texas
Blockaded Union forces at the Red River
Place where two armies met, after the Union tried to move into Texas via the Red River
Hood's Texas Brigade and Terry's Texas Rangers
Better known Texas units serving east of the Mississippi River.
Francis R. Lubbock
Defeated Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark for re-election
A lawyer from Marshall, elected governor in 1836
Turned her luxurious home into a hospital
A loosely-woven, homemade fabric
General Robert E. Lee
Leader of the confederate army, who decided to surreneder to General Ulysses S. Grant
Appomatox Court House
Location of Lee's surrender
Last land battle of the civil war was fought where?
John Wilkes Booth
President Lincoln's Assasin
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Provisional Governor, appointed by President Andrew Johnson
An important drug, used for fighting Malaria
More Money to finance war, and more factories to build materials for the war
Important factors that contributed to the North's win
Governor James W. Thockmorton
Former confederate commanding general of the frontier district of Texas.
Granted citizenship to former enslaved people
Laws restricting the rights of African Americans
Republicans who believed the south should pay dearly for leaving the union, that freedmen should get the same rights as a white men, etc.
Accuse someone of crimes, so that they must be tried in a court.
Gave African American Men the right to vote
Elisha M. Pease
Replaced governor Thockmorton, courtesy of Sheridan. Priviously Thockmortons' opponent in the 1866 election
Suthern whites who supported reconstruction
Northeners who came to the south for helping the south, or for personal economic gain
Edmund J. Davis
Radical Republican's candidate, who narrowly defeated Andrew J. Hamilton for governor
A former confederate leader from Waco, who ran against Davis for governor; He won
The period after the civil war in which the country was built back up
The document which freed slaves in the South; issued by Lincoln
General Gordon Granger
Issued a proclamation to Texans declaring slaves to be free
June 19th; when slaves where freed in Texas
General George A. Custer
The leader of a Union Cavalry that occupied Austin, the capitol
Oliver O. Howard
The head of the Freedmen's Bureau and a Union Civil War general
It helped freed African Americans and poor whites
General E.M. Gregory
The head of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas
Freed African American Slaves
Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek
A treaty that guarenteed Native Americans food, shelter, and protection, as long as they agreed to live peacefully on reservations.
Area, in present day Oklahoma, where the Native American reservations were located.
People who hated war and believed in peace
The agent working with the Indians in Indian territory
The most famous Kiowa chief who refused reservation life.
Another importat Kiowa cheif who did not accept reservation life
A comanche chief who also refused to accept reservation life
A very, very strong (and famous) Comanche chief who refused to accept reservation life
A war chief of the apaches who was determined to resist life on reservation life
A chief who advised against war
Another chief, along with Kicking Bird, who accepted reservation life.
A comanche chief who led his people onto reservations.
General William Tecumseh Sherman
Sent by the Army to investigate the matter of Native American raids
Place where fort Richardson is located
Sherman became convinced the peace policy was
Big Tree and Satank
Two other Kiowa chiefs captured along with Satanta
Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie
Commander of the fourth calvary regiment
Charles Rath, John Mooar, and J. Wright Mooar
People who began the era of the buffalo hunt
The early 1870s
The slaughter of the buffalo herds began in
General Philip Sheridan
Commander of the U.S. Military Department of the Southwest, who helped to defeat the bill to protect the buffalo herds
A political proposition, normaly a law
Camp of the buffalo hunters, which a large union of Native Americans, led by Quanah Parker, attacked
Red River Campaign
A capaign, led by the army, not government agents, to get rid of and defeat the Indians
Major John B. Jones
A veteran of Terry's Texas Rangers who led the fronteir battilion during the Red River Campaign
Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
The most decisive battle of the Red River Campaign
The last remaining Comanche band who surrendered in June 1875
Raiders who were in Mexico, and who Mackenzie sometimes crossed the Rio Grande to go after
A leader of the Apaches, who led the group who was located in the mountains of west Texas
Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson
One of the leaders of the war against Victorio
Lieutenant Henry Ossian Flipper
An African-American graduate of West Point, who was in the tenth calvary regiment
A name given to African-American soldiers by the Native Americans
A unit commanded by Captain L.H. McNelly and active in the Rio Grande Valley
Juan N. Cortina
A "Robin-Hood" character who stood up for the rights of African-Americans against the Authorities
True of False: The rangers were able to capture Cortina
Fill in the blanks: ____'s defeat in ____ marked the end of all Indian wars in Texas
Public land that could be used by anybody
A native new yorker who eventually established the ranch bearing his name
Came with Richard King to Texas during the Mexican-American War
A ranch in south texas, near the Gulf of Mexico, established by Richard King
A trail that went north from Texas to Sedalia, Missouri where the railroad ended
People who moved cattle
Joseph G. McCoy
A guy who established peace between the drovers and the missouri people. He pesuaded the railroads moving westward to build towns and everything neccesary to house drovers and their herds. He then persuaded the drovers to turn their herds farther westward, thus avoiding Missouri.
The trail used by drovers to go to the railroads farther west, avoiding missouri, thanks to Joseph G. McCoy
Great Western Trail
The trail formed at Kerrville where the Matamortos trail from brownsville met the Old Trail from Castroville
The trail formed by two people that moved cattle to the ranges of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana.
One of the best known drovers who helped to found the Goodnight-Loving Trail
A cowboy who published The Log of a Cowboy
A cowboy who published A Texas Cowboy, or Fifteen Years on the Hurricane Deck of a Spanish Pony
One of the people who expanded the King Ranch
King's son-in-law who helped to expand the King Ranch
Established the JA ranch
She rescued and raised baby buffalo left to die by the buffalo hunters
Began herding cattle on the Canadian River in 1876
Shoe Bar Ranch
Created by Thomas Bugbee
A ranch founded by H.H. Campbell
Matador Land and Cattle Company
Who the Matador ranch was bought by
The ranch that was in part financed by British Investors
The hardy wild horses of the western plains
George Wilkins Kendall
A newspaper reporter who set up a 5,000 acre ranch east of Boerne
The most succesful inventor of barb wire
Led the fight against those who stripped off the wires and broke the posts of newly built fences.
A serious crime
Owned Ranado Ranch
Daniel Webster "80 John" Wallace
An african-american who eventually owned his own ranch near Colorado city
An African-American cowhand in the panhandle
A skilled African-American cowhand who worked for Charles Goodnight
Elizabeth Johnson Williams
An expierienced woman rancher whose knoledge of cattle and cattle traiding was widely respected
Dona Maria del Carmen Calvillo
One of Texas' eariest woman ranchers.
A method of farming that used a manner of farming that left loose soil on the top of the ground
The most important crop in Texas was _____
A leader in buissines and agriculture who introduced cotton to the Rio Grande valley
A person who works the land of a land owner for them, and does provide their own tools, seeds, etc.
A person who works the land of a land owner for them, and does not provide their own tools, seeds, etc.
Constitution of 1876
Constitution Texas government still uses today
The right to vote
George Ruby and Matt Gaines
African American senators who served under the administration of Davis
Norris Wright Cuney
The most indluential african american of his day; he was a republican
William "Gooseneck Bill" Mcdonald
Another African American party leader during the end of the 1800's
A mexican american mayor of laredo
Gregorio N. Garcia
A mexican american leader representing El Paso
The Governor who succeded Coke, who, despite his efforts, increased the public debt to about $5.5 million
Governor Oran M. Roberts
The governor who succeded Coke, and balanced the public debt
Wages paid after military service
An executive group of volunteers who often cary out the law swiftly, but illegaly
Legal group who joined local officers in the fight against crime
Texas Equal Rights Association
In 1893 Rebecca Henry Hayes founded the ______
A noted European sculptor who immigrated to Texas in 1872
Land Grant of 1876
This authorized 16 sections of land to be given to a railroad company for every mile of track it laid
Places that take oil in, and make it more pure and extract other types of oil from the crude oil
Arrangments usually used to prevent other companies from selling the same thing
An exclusive control of a business
A system which allowed buissnesses to operate without government interference
An early orginization of farmers, called the Patrons of Husbandry. It sold thindgs to farmers at low prices
Another orginization that farmers joined as the grange lost influence
Texas People's Party
A new political party also known as the populist party that included some struggling farmers
One of the more talented leaders of the People's Party
The law that prohibited trusts
Interstate Commerce Commission
Created by the congress in 1887 that set rules for the interstate railroads, such as price regulations.
Existing only within the boundaries of a given state
James S. Hogg
He, as state attorney general, had helped Texas become only the second state to pass an anti-trust law
Texas Railroad Commission
In 1891 the legislature established the ______, which set the rates and watched over railroad practices
Expanding across two or more states
True or False? Reagen was well liked by both Texas citizens and railroad officials.
City struck by a hurricane in 1900
Women's health protective association
Organized after Galveston's hurricane to inspect and safegaurd cemeteries, streets, markets, dairies, schools, hospitals, and parks
Rabbi Henry Cohen
He greeted Jewish people fleeing from persecution in Russia and eastern Europe
Lyne T. Barret
Drilled the first oil well in Texas
Pattillo Higgins and Anthony Lucas
Remained optomistic and started drilling again, eventually finding spindeltop field
The amazing oil flow, which was estimated to be 100,000 barrels of oil per day until capped
A destination of oil prospectors who wanted to get rich
Goose Creek Oil Field
An oil field located closer to the coast and established in 1916
Houston Ship Channel
After being deepened, this channel became very significant in the transportation of oil
Secured funds for the Houston Ship Channel
High towers that held drilling equipment
People concerned with preserving natural resources
W. Goodrich Jones
A conservationist who was part of the people who replanted pine trees
Sold directly to the consumer in small quantities
Neiman-Marcus department store
Established in Dallas in 1907 by Carrie Marcus Neiman, her husband A.L. Neiman, and her brother Herbert Marcus
A Chicago mailorder company who was America's largest retailer
Important city, which is nice
The attempts of reformers to solve problems
The attempt and desire to solve problems of cities and such
A form of government without one single mayor, but rather a group of people
Terrel Election Law
This ensures that elections will be carried out fairly
A ____ is held by a party before a general election
Rebecca Henry Hayes
Organized the Texas Equal Rights association
Equal Suffrage League
Founded by the finnegan sisters in 1903 in Houston
Governor James Ferguson
Fought against woman suffrage, nut in the summer of 1913 he was charged with a variety of offenses (not related to woman suffrage)
William P. Hobby
Texas women won the right to vote from him by making a deal: if they are allowed to vote, then they will vote for him
The Ammendment to the constitution which gives Women the full right to vote
Woman's Christian Temperance
One of the groups that was most involved in trying to bring about the end of alcohol sails and close down the business that made alcoholic beverages
Texas Anti-Saloon League
Formed in 1907, this became another powerdul voice in the battle to outlaw drinking in the state
The Ammendment to the Constitution which made prohibition the law of the land throughout the United States
Norris Wright Cuney
An example of an African American appointed to a federal office by Republicans while they occupied the White House
Jim Crow Laws
Laws discriminating against African Americans
Racial and unfair seperation
A fee for voting
Charles N. Love and W.E. King
Both of these people founded newspapers in 1893 to serve the African American community
One of the orginizations created in order to work for racial equality. This one began in Houston in 1912. (Abbreviation)
Moses Austin-The father of Stephen F. Austin
Went to San Antonio- Was denied- Baron De Bastrop helped- approved- died.
Governor Antonio Martinez
The Governor that recommended Moses Austin for land in Texas- Originally Denied him Permission- Then gave it after BdB talked to him.
Baron de Bastrop
A friend of Austin's- man of influence- helped him gain approval.
Stephen F. Austin-Moses Austin's son
continue Moses' work- did so- Hardworking, loyal to Mexico, truthful, dealt successfully with authorities.- Hired the Lively- shipwreck- still became the most successful empresario.
Washington on the Brazos
Andrew Robinson's site of his ferry across the Brazos river- first settler in Austin's land.
the ship hired by Stephen F. Austin to bring supplies to his colony and settlers - shipwreck- badly needed supplies- colony survived, Lively Didn't.
Governor Luciano Garcia
The patron saint of Texas that San Felipe honors.
San Felipe de Austin
The capital of Austin's colony- honors Austin and San Felipe
Augustine de Iturbe
Overthrown Mexican emperor
A Spanish province- united with Texas- Coahuila y Tejas
the meeting place of the Coahuila y Tejas legislature- located in Coahuila
HQ for the new colony dubbed "The Little Colony"
Sterling C. Robertson
The owner of a portion of land that intersected with "the little colony"
nest to Austin, most successful empresario- Gonzales was his HQ.
Martin De Leon
A successful empresario- Native of Mex.-rancher- bring Mexican settlers in- Victoria = HQ.
Imperial Colonization Law
recog. Slavery- outlaw slave trading- broad enough that slavery was a fact of life.
Mary Austin Holley
Stephen F. Austin's cousin.
a time in which businesses suffer and people lose jobs
a land agent whose job it was to bring new settlers into an area
a temporary army unit
people who believed in sharing power between the states and the national government
-people who believed that power should be concentrated in the national government
valuable goods brought in marriage.
a large administrative unit
-taxes on things made in foreign countries that are imported.
-movement of goods
to bring into a country
A contaminated food- and water- borne disease.
to do away with
-A mosquito-borne, parasitic disease.
a ruler with absolute power.
Empresario- Huge land area- Nacogdoches area- settlers with no deed- Jose Antonio Saucedo (Political chief) sympathized w/ settlers- no charging for new deeds.
DECLARE INDEPENDENCE!- allied with Richard fields(Cherokee chief) and prepared for action.
Republic of Fredonia
Independent republic created by Benjamin Edwards in rebellion- it collapsed
the name given to the rise and fall of the republic of Fredonia.
Jose de las piedras
Colonel sent from mexico to stop any rowdiness and make sure nothing big happened.
General Manuel de Mier y Teran
Mexican general- obxerved Anglos were strong- recommendations- Stop immigration.
Proposed that Mexicans sell Texas to the US.
The site of a small Mexican garrison.
quarreled with Anahuac colonists—taking supplies and refusing to give up runaway slaves- Bradburnm arrested two lawyers- rebellion- colonists attack
William B Travis and Patrick C. Jack
Two lawyers arrested for obstruction n of justice (Not really)
Frank W. Johnson and William H. Jack
led a group of settlers from San Felipe
led a warparty from Brazoria. Went back to Brazoria to procure a cannon.
Turtle Bayo resolutions
colonists declared loyalty to Mexico- support Santa Anna- not Bustamante.
Domingo de Ugartechea
Mexican commander at Velasco- skirmish with Settlers-Ugartechea surrenders- Sail on- Travis and Jack already freed. XD
William H. Wharton and Rafael Manchola
two people chosen to present the resolutions decided upon by the convention of 1832, but they never were...
Convention of 1833
it adopted many of the same resolutions- also proposed constitution for the proposed Mexican state of Texas. Stephen F Austin, Erasmo Seguin, and Dr. james B Miller were chosen, but only Austin went in the end.
Stephen F. Austin was arreseted- Letter urging them to start their own government.
a political leader in San Antonio- Trusted friend of Stephen F. Austin's.
Colonel Juan Almonte
sent on inspection and tour of Texas- all was quietand urged that reforms continue- Austin should be released- IGNORED.
captain of the Anahuac garrison - quarreled with Andrew Briscoe - customs duties- arrest- uproar- Tenorio dethroned
General Martin Perfecto De Cos
heard of what happened to Tenorio- received letter of apology- too late.- Ordered arrest of Travis and Lorenzo de Zavala-caused great concern
convention held by Texan delegates- what to do.
Group of people who favored a peaceful resolution.
group of people who favored an immediate resolution, even if it meant war.
"The Lexington of Texas"- similar circumstances- touch off revolution
tried to seize a brass cannon- No!- fight.
Colonel John H. Moore
commander of the rebels at Gonzales
Army of the People
the Texans assembled at ghonzales
Peace party wins- declaration
Governor of Texas
James W. Robinson
commander of the regular army
commander of volunteer army
the attack of a mule train thought to be carrying silver- it was actually carrying grass.
empresario- capture Goliad
Frank W. Johnson
commander of the second column of Milam's army.
Seige of Bexar
the fthird day of the siege of San Antonio by the Texans- Milam killed- Cos surrenders December 9
Captain Juan N. Seguin
supporter of TX independence- recruited volunteers from Mexican ranches- commanded scouting company
Jose Antonio Navarro and Jose Francisco Ruiz
the two native Texans at the Convention of 1836.
David G. Burnet
president of the ad interim government- formerly an empresario.
Committees of correspondence
-local groups that share political and military info
to set up a military blockade around
a temporary government
locally governed areas
full time, paid army
-passed the proposal over
request something from
chief governing officer
Germany, Italy, Japan
not taking sides
England, China, France, Russia
a 1941 program in which the U.S. loaned military equipment to the Allied powers
the base in Hawaii that Japan attacked which forced the US. into World War II
an African American sailor that fired at Japan planes attacking Pearl Harbor
Admiral Chester W. Nimitz
the man who presented Millerwuth the Navy Cross
commanded Alied forces in Europe
fought in nine batlle campaigns in North Africa and Europe. the most decorated soldier
Commander Samuel D. Dealy
the most decoratd man in the Navy
one of the 34 texans to recieve the Medal of honor
Colonel Oveta Culp Hobby
director of Women's recruitment for WAVES
one of the two first commisioned officers for WAVES
one of the two first commisioned officers for WAVES
groups of people (during wartime) who determined how essential goods would be alloted
place where a huge plant that removed magnesium from seawater was built
the home of the largest tin smelter in the world
the president of an International Ladies Garments Workers
(Fair Employment Practices Comitee) reduced discrimination in war industries to increase production
camps established to advance the killing in Germany of the Jews
th killing of millions of Jews in an effort to wipe out that race
goods consumed by the public
equipped with machinery
rights guaranteed by the U.S. constitution
person that died in the Philippines while serving his country
Dr. Hector P. Garcia
created the American GI Forum
American GI Forum
worked in the fight for equal rights
(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) worked for the rights of colored people
Smith vs. Allwright
declared that an all-white primary was unconstitutional
Sweatt vs. Painter
a major victory for the NAACPin getting black people rights
Hemam M. Sweatt
an African American who lived in Houston and worked for the post office. rejected from UT law school because of his race
led Houston in getting "whites only" signs removed from the airport
GI Bill of Rights
a law that paid veterans to go to college
a time after World War II where there were barely enough nurses to deliver the babies
Armies of occupation
armies left after the war to make sure they didn't rebel
adhering to communism, a theory that eliminates private property
period after the war where the U.S. and U.S.S.R. built weapons to make sure the other woudn't attack. it heated up when communist North Korea attacked South Korea
Democrats that remained loyal to the New Deal programs
Democrats that believed that governent assistance weakened the ability of people to do things for themselves
Democrats neither liberal or concervative.
right to rule
the process of redrawing district lines according to population
the act of of making unfounded, sensationalist cahrges against persons
the act of printing statements known to be false and intentionally sprading them to do damage to someone's reputation
Vice President Harry Truman
Made president after Farklin Roosevelt's death
South Carolinian that ran against Harry Truman, he recieved 10% of Texas' votes.
Texas Govorner Allan Shivers
believed that government assistance weakened the ability of people to do things for themselves
began in 1950, had not produced a decicive victory for the United States. When North Korea tried to make South Korea Communist.
General Douglas MacArthur
fired by President Truman after he publicly disagreed with Truman's strategies.
Allan Shiver helped to create the _____ _____, to research proposed laws.
Legislative Budget Board
Allan Shivers established _______ to makerecommendations on how much money diferent state agencies should receive.
served as the speaker of the House for all but 4 years between 1940 and 1961
was selected as majority leader of the Senate in 1955. He ran for the Democratic Party nomination for president in 1960, but lost to JFK
John F. Kennedy
Won the presidenct over Lyndon Johnson and was Roman Catholic
Republican canidadte for the replacement of LBJ's senate seat... He won
Lee Harvey Oswald
The man suspected to be the assassin of JFK... but he was probably not alone because of the Zeprudder film which showed that Jfk's fatal shot to the head caused him to move back and to the left, which would be impossible because if Lee Oswlad was behind the president if he was the assassin, JFK's fatal shot would cause him to move forward... Also, it is impossible for a man to reload a gun and aim as fast as he supposibly did, and there is much proof that there were multiple assassins from pictures. One was behind a fence (probably the fatal shot shooter) and many more on the grassy knoll, and even in a prision. I could go on, but i dont want to overload the whole website.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
argument case that schools that were segregated by race could never be equal
brought the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case to court
was the site with the most visable resistance to desegregation
When everyone was afraid everyone was communist
a group of vehicles
at the outskits of cities or large towns
open water storage areas
what radios a t.v.s depend on
A Part of an elecrical circuit that made the shrinkage of ic's possible. It used the application of a smaller voltage to the gate to regulate the flow of a much larger current. It is extremely important in basically all electronics
integrated silcon circuit
A small circuit that is mostly silicon, a semiconductor. also called a "chip"
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
built more dams across Texas Rivers
Doctors Micahel DeBakey and Denton Cooley
people pioneering new techniques in treating heart disease
first company to make a radio with transistors
working for Texas Instruments, invented the integrated silicon circuit
the first artificial satellite
Appointed to put a man on the moon before 1970
Sarah T. Hughes
administered the oath of office to Lyndon B.Johnson
Franklin Roosevelt's new deal program goal
"war on poverty"
the idea of Framklin Roosevelt's New Deal Programs
marked by success or economic well-being
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
improved education for all
Head Start and Job Corps
created federal aid for college students
Civil Rights act of 1967
helped civil rights for colored people
Voting Rights Act
helped get voting rights for colored people
country in Southeast Asia that was divided and North attacked South like in Korea
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
a leader in civil rights struggle, assasinated on April 4 19
assasinated June 5 1968
president after JFK, republican
democratic representative supported by Texas
the breakin at Democratic HQ in which president Nixon was a part of the cover up, and why he was forced to resign
served on the Judiciary Comittee that investigated president Nixon
served on the Judiciary Comittee that investigated president Nixon
persons who flee for safety, especially to a foreign country
a leader in the struggle for equality who took after Mohandes Ghandi
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) founded by James Farmer and dedicated to the idea of a peaceceful change
people who would protest by refusing to use a certain product or service
peopple physically sat down inside or in front of businesses or offices
took integrated buses through segregated areas of the South to draw attention to civil rights
Henry B. Gonzalez
first mexican american to serve in the state senate in modern times
Governor John Connally
made many mexican american workers unhappy by not giving them what they wanted. namely a below average factory
(Mexican american youth organization) founded by Jose Angel Gutierrez, and embraced mexican american heritage
(la Raza Unida Party) a non-important political party that has had one president
(Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund) it tried to end discriminatory practices through lawsuits
Diego Rivera and Clemente Orozco
Mexican artists that inspired other Mexican American artists
an artist inspired by Diego Rivera
Hattie Mae White
the first african american to serve on the Houston School Board
Frances "Sissy" Farenthold
on eof the only two women in the state house in 1969
a speech that presents the main issue of interest to an audience and often inspires unit and enthusiasm
the production of goods
large outdoor facilities used for fattening cows
boom and bust cycles
periodicals times of great sales followed by times of bad sales
Air Control Board
a group of people used to reduce the amount of pollution in the air
an association used to stop the monopolies from charging too much by setting the price on certain items
(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) a cartel for petroleum
Harris County Domed Stadium Stadium
(astrodome) built from 1963-1964, the first enclosed, domed, air-conditioned, multipurpose sports stadiu in the world
the act of two or more groups relying on each other for support
the first officially designated international exposition to be held in the southwestern U.S.
Institute of Texan Cultures
the most important building in the Hemisfair '68; Texan world building came to appreciate the rich ethnic diversity of Texas in this building
those who live in cities
the first Republican governor of Texas since the reconstruction
held the office of state treasurer until 1991, when she became governor
Sheila Jackson Lee and Eddie Bernice Johnson
African Americans who represented Texas in the US House of Representatives
Kay Bailey Hutchison
elected to the US Senate in 1993, 19994, and 2000
the first republican woman to be elected to the House from Texas
the Mayor of Houston from 1982 to 1992
Dallas Mayor in 1987
the mayor of El Paso in the late 1980s
served in Clinton's cabinet as secretary of housing and urban development
group of top political advisors
first African-American woman from a southern state to serve in Congress when she was elected to the House of Representatives and the state senate in 1973 until 1979. She retired to austin and became a professor at the LBJ sschool of public affairs. SHe was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994 and had an airport terminal in Austin named after her.
took Jordan's place in Congress. He worked to fight world hunger but was killed in a plane crash and had a terminal named in his honor in Houston.
GEORGE W BUSH (OMGWTFBBQ)
elected president inn 2000 and again in 2004
speaker of the House of Representatives.
Eligio de la Garza
chairman of a powerful committee in the House of representatives
Democratic memeber of the House of Representatives, co authored Prewsident Reagans economic program, and was Removed from his seat on the house budget committee
a proposed law
US Senator Llyod Bentsen
served as secretary of the Treasury department in the early 1900s
Where Pershing ballistic missiles were assembled and disassembled.
near Amarillo, nuclear weapons were decommissioned here
disassembly and removal of radioactive materials
Bergstrom Air Force Base
an airbase converted into a badly needed city airport in Austin
factories near the border that use Mexican Labor and US materials
officially set aside
opened up borders for trade between Mexico, the US, and Canada.
a group of middle eastern countries that formed an oil cartel to control oil prices.
loans used to buy property
the US invasion of Iraq to stop the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Also called the Gulf War
a major staging area for the GUlf War
H. Ross Perot
a successful business man who was head of a commission to study the schools of Texas
Jovita Gonzlaes de Mireles and E.E. Mireles
wrote bilingual textbooks and promoted them in Corpus Christi schools
supports students who speak another language other than English as a native language
end of the year exams to asses whether a student has learned a sufficient amount during the year
the governor of Texas from 1983 to 1998