emperor who extended Hapsburg Empire to its greatest size; elected Holy Roman Emperor by German princes; grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella; devout Catholic; eventually accepted the Peace of Augsburg; at the end of his rule, he divided his empire between his brother and son; became a monk
PEACE OF AUGSBURG
allowed each German prince to determine the official religion within his territory; accepted by Charles V
expanded into Eastern Europe; led by Suleiman; invaded Hungary and advanced up the Danube River to Vienna; arranged a truce with Charles V and King Ferdinand of Hungary that left the Turks in control of most of Hungary
during his reign, Spain was the most powerful nation in Europe; governed as an absolute monarch; trusted no one; intensely religious man who believed that his right to rule came from God; worked hard to ensure justice; built Escorial; believed that his mission in life was to fight heretics and restore the unity of the Catholic Church; led Catholic Reformation in Spain; drawn into many wars; son of Charles V; led Spanish Armada; reign was during the Century of Gold
ruler who has complete authority over the government and over the lives of the people
somber palace that Philip II built outside Madrid; served as a royal residence, office, monastery, and burial vault
BATTLE OF LEPANTO
off the coast of Greece, the fleet of Philip II decisively defeated the Turkish Navy
served as a court painter to Philip IV during the Spanish Century of Gold; shows himself painting a portrait of the children of the royal family
in 1830, the ten southern provinces that remained the Spanish Netherlands became this country
group that dominated seaborne trade in Europe and overseas; had more ships than any other nation; competed with Portuguese in the East Indies and seized islands in Spanish West Indies; sent settlers to North America; supported by Queen Elizabeth.
Protestant ruler of England who feared that if Philip crushed the Dutch he would then invade England; cautiously supported the Dutch; appointed English sea captains to wage an undeclared war on Spain
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE
most famous sea dog; made several voyages to the West Indies to seize Spanish treasure; Philip wanted Queen Elizabeth to punish him, but instead, she knighted him, which infuriated the Spanish king
CENTURY OF GOLD
time period during Philip II's reign in which Spanish culture blossomed; Spanish writers, philosophers, and artists created great masterpieces that marked a high point in Spanish culture
LOPE DE VEGA
contemporary of Shakespeare; wrote at least 700 plays and greatly influenced drama; works included religious dramas, histories, and comedies; plays focused on God, the king, and Romance
Jesuit writer who wrote about the relationship between faith and reason; influenced both religion and philosophy
painter who expressed intense religious feelings in his portraits of saints; born in Crete; received his nickname when he moved to Spain; drew long, distorted faces that produced a dramatic effect
hurt Spanish industries; increase in the number of gold and silver coins in circulation; prices rose all over Europe; Spanish businesses failed
Spanish Muslims who had converted to Christianity; accused of secretly practicing their old religion; persecuted by the Inquisition
Huguenot who married Marguerite; originally _____ of Navarre; saw clearly that the only way to restore peace was to put the interests of France above those of religion; converted to Cathlocism; "Paris is well worth a Mass."; issued the Edict of Nantes to assure Huguenots that their interests would be protected
CATHERINE DE' MEDICI
ruthless ruler accused of using her daughter's marriage to a Huguenot to slaughter 10,000 Huguenots
EDICT OF NANTES
issued by Henry IV; gave Huguenots freedom of worship and the right to set up churches in certain places; gave them the same civil rights as Catholics and the right to have Protestant troops defend over 100 fortified towns in Huguenot areas
led the Ottoman Turks in their invasion of Hungary, and advanced up the Danube River to Vienna
described life in a state of nature in which people had no government; claimed that this life would be "nasty, brutish, and short"; to escape the chaos of their natural state, people entered into a contract in which they agreed to give up their freedom to a ruler who guaranteed peace and order; claimed that the best government was one in which the ruler had absolute power; insisted that once people entered into such a contract, they could not rebel, even if they thought the ruler was a tyrant; supported the rule of absolute monarchs; published "Leviathan" (Thomas Hobbes was a nasty, brutish, and short HOBBit)
"NASTY, BRUTISH, AND SHORT"
how Thomas Hobbes described life in a state of nature in which people had no government (Thomas Hobbes was a nasty, brutish, and short HOBBit)
published by Thomas Hobbes; described life in a state of nature in which people had no government
believed in natural rights (life, liberty, and property); government was responsible for protecting these rights, but its power should be limited; was more OPTIMISTIC on nature than Hobbes; thought people were basically reasonable and would cooperate with one another; argued that rulers could stay in power only as long as they had the consent of those they governed; believed that if a ruler was a tyrant, he or she had broken the contract, and thus the people had the right to rebel; published "Two Treatises on Government" His concepts were important for America's future.
LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY
the 3 natural rights John Locke claimed that people were born with, and that government should protect
many writers and thinkers (especially in France) who expanded on Locke's idea of natural rights; confident that the use of science and reason would lead to continued human progress; French word meaning "philosophers"; concerned about many social issues; urged many freedoms (religious tolerance, freedom of SPEECH and the PRESS, no censorship, end ignorance/prejudice/superstition, no slavery, no cruel torture, more humane treatment of mentally ill)
favored free market; searched for natural laws to explain economics; a group of philosophes that opposed mercantilism; argued that land was the true source of national wealth, not hoards of gold and silver; believed that restrictions on trade should be removed so farmers could sell their products wherever there was a mercantilism
an economic system in which all goods can be bought and sold without controls; favored by physiocrats
believed in separation of powers and checks and balances; keen student of government; especially impressed with England's government; his ideas later influenced the authors of the Constitution of the United States
SEPARATION OF POWERS
government is divided into three branches: legislative (makes laws), executive (enforced laws), and judicial (interpreted laws if disputes arose); favored by Montesquieu
CHECKS AND BALANCES
ensured that no branch of government could dominate another; favored by Montesquieu
argued for common sense, religious toleration, and freedom of though; said "I do not agree with a word you say but I will defend to the death your right to say it."; very witty, sarcastic, clever, and attacking towards anything he did not agree with; real name was Francois Marie Arouet; raised his hand in painting p. 408
happy that America was free; used his pottery to spread "enlightened" ideas; worked to end slavery
"I DO NOT AGREE WITH A WORD YOU SAY BUT I WILL DEFEND TO THE DEATH YOUR RIGHT TO SAY IT."
famous quote by Voltaire; demonstrates his belief in freedom of speech; displays his sarcastic, argumentative, and witty manner
Swiss man that believed that human nature was basically good and that society corrupts people; all people were equal and all titles of rank and nobility should be abolished; admired "noble savages" (humans in their natural state who lived far from the influences of civilization); wrote "The Social Contract"; his belief in equality and in the will of the majority made him a spokesman for the common people; always felt out of place; complainer and constant critic of others
supervised the publication of a huge encyclopedia (or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Occupations) that summarized human knowledge of that time (35 volumes); hoped the encyclopedia would bring about "a revolution in the minds of men to free them from prejudice"; included diagrams
THE SOCIAL CONTRACT
written by Rousseau; described an ideal society; people would form a community and make a contract with one another, not with a ruler; people would give up some of their freedom in favor of the "general will" (decisions of the majority); community would vote on all decisions, and everyone would accept the community decision
"ENCYCLOPEDIA, OR CLASSIFIED DICTIONARY OF THE SCIENCES, ARTS, AND OCCUPATIONS"
compiled information from many of the best thinkers (Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot, and many others); 35 volumes; information on all subjects, but mostly science and technology; banned by the Catholic Church and government censors because it was considered antireligious (criticized religious persecution)
formal gatherings held by wealthy women in France at which writers, musicians, painters, and philosophes presented their works and exchanged ideas
MADAME DE GEOFFRIN
middle-class woman who began holding salons; Voltaire and other leading philosophes gathered at her salons at least once a week
LOUISE DE WARENS
woman who supported Rousseau and his family so he could spend his full time writing (acted as a patron)
EMILIE DU CHÂTELET
became a noted physicist and mathematician and translated Newton's work from Latin into French
Austrian empress who tried to put Enlightenment principles into practice; passed laws to limit serfdom by controlling the amount of unpaid work required
son of Maria Theresa; took his mother's policies a step further and abolished serfdom; allowed freedom of the press, banned the use of torture, ended religious persecution, gave equal rights to Jews and limited the power of the Catholic Church
FREDERICK THE GREAT
ruler of Prussia; so impressed with the French philosophes that he invited Voltaire to his court; introduced reforms by allowing religious freedom and by encouraging elementary education for children; did not change the social structure (which was based on inequality and serfdom)
WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART
composer who is especially remembered as a child genius who began composing before he was five years old; at age six he played for the empress Maria Theresa; performed in the salons of Paris; only 35 when he died; had already written more than 600 musical works, including symphonies, operas, and church music
Louis XIII adviser who was chiefly responsible for increasing the power and prestige of the French monarchy;he prevented the huguenots from challenging royal power;willed destruction of fortified castles and outlawed dueling;was a mercantilist who encouraged nobles to support overseas trading companies.
son of Louis XIII;symbol was the The Sun;believed he had a divine right to rule;reorganized French army;a staunch catholic who wanted to make France a unified Catholic country again;moved to the Palace of Versailles.
where Louis XIV built his magnificent palace;usually invited nobles to live there so he could keep an eye on them.
"I AM THE STATE."
a famous quote by Louis XIV meaning he had absolute power because kings were representatives of God's power on earth.
JEAN BAPTISTE COLBERT
a mercantilist who successfully managed the royal finances;he developed a two-part strategy for increasing royal revenues;1st he reformed the system of collecting taxes;2nd he introduced higher taxes;under his direction, the French economy prospered.
THIRTY YEARS' WAR
The Peace of Augsburg of 1555 had brought a temporary truce in the religious connict in the German states. This settle-ment had recognized only Lutherans and Roman Catholics, but Cal-vinism had subsequently made gains in a number of states. The Calvinists began to demand recognition of their rights. The Thirty Years' War began, however, as a direct result of a conflict in the Hapsburg-ruled Kingdom of Bohemia.
through carefully arranged marriages, the first Hapsburgs gradually acquired an empire larger than any since the days of Rome;reached its greatest size under Charles V
Hapsburg emperor who tried to restore the Catholic Church in Bohemia; when the Protestants resisted, he decided to crush them; started Thirty Years' War
PEACE OF WESTPHALIA
agreement that ended Thirty Years' War; guaranteed independence of 300 small German states; gave privileges to princes; acknowledged territorial and political changes that had taken place in the preceding 50 years
also known as the Great Elector;establishes strong rule over his lands by building a strong army; family was Hohenzollerns;during Catholic Reformation, they became Lutherans.
noble landlords who refused to grant the Great Elector the right to impose taxes; did not have to pay taxes when Great Elector finally won the right to collect taxes
family of Frederick William or the Great Elector who inherited Prussia in eastern Germany.
KING FREDERICK WILLIAM I
the Great Elector's grandson;doubled the Prussian armies' size to 80,000;peasants were drafted to serve as soldiers;he was a tireless worker who believed in obedience and discipline;strengthened the Prussian economy;had a son named Frederick the Great
guaranteed that the Hapsburg lands would not be divided, and recognized Maria Theresa's right to inherit the Austrian throne
had no son to inherit the throne;feared that German princes and nobles would not recognize his daughter Maria Theresa as a ruler of Austria;he persuaded the German princes and nobles to sign the Pragmatic Sanction.
dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.
PETER THE GREAT
Became the ruler of Russia and known for westernzing the country in order to be successful. He made Russia come out of their isolation and created the first navy. He soon moved his capital to St. Petersburg, where he expanded the size of Russia; had many harsh reforms;often disguised himself as commoners to spy (but it didn't work because everyone knew who he was).
ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK
Dutch pioneer microscopist who was among the first to recognize cells in animals and who gave the first accurate descriptions of microbes and spermatozoa and blood corpuscles (1632-1723)
A combination of observation and reason;it is a three-step approach:first, careful experiments and observations are made;second reason is used to interpret the results;third, mathematics is used rather than logic is used to prove scientific theory.
A polish mathematician and astronomer who played a major role in developing the scientific method;published On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies;challenged Ptolemy's view of the universe;proved Ptolemy wrong by using mathematical calculations:first the earth actually moved on its axis;second the earth was not the center of the universe.
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy.
Publicized Copernicus's findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; added discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
SIR ISAAC NEWTON
Greatest figure of the Scientific Revolution; organized ideas of previous scientists into one system of mathematical laws to explain the orderly manner in which the planets revolve around the sun. The key feature of this thesis was the law of universal gravitation, which states that every body in the universe attracts every other body in precise mathematical relationships. Such proof showed that the universe operated by rules, which could be explained through math, and that religious interpretation was not the sole means of comprehending the forces of nature.
This arrogant 16th-century physician challenged Galen when he stated that disease was not caused by an imbalance of the four humors, but by chemical imbalances that could be treated with chemical remedies;noted for his famous quote: "I pleased no one except the sick whom I healed."
physician who published the first accurate and detailed study of human anatomy;he wrote On the Structure of the Human Body.
developed a painless ointment that prevented infection rather than pouring boiling into the wound.