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The second neuron in the autonomic motor pathway is called

postganglionic neuron

Autonomic plexuses include the

cardiac plexus, pulmonary plexus, celiac plexus, renal plexus

The sites of olfactory transduction are the olfactory hairs, which are

cilia projecting from the dendrites of first-order neurons

Olfactory sensations reach the brain via

cranial nerve I

The receptors on the tip of the tongue are most sensitive to

none, the concept of the tongue map is outdated

In order for a substance to be tasted, it must be

dissolved in saliva

Fungiform papillae contain

gustatory cells

The lacrimal apparatus produces

tears

Lacrimal fluid contains a protective bacterial enzyme called

lysozyme

Venous sinus (Canal of Schlemm) exits the eye through an opening in the

sclera

"Bloodshot eyes" are the result of dilation of blood vessels in the

conjunctiva

The function of the ciliary processes is to

produce aqueous humor

The lens is held in place by the

suspensory ligaments

Intraocular pressure is produced mainly by

aqueous humor

Nutrients are provided to the posterior surface of the retina by blood vessels in the darkly pigmented portion of the vascular tunic known as the

choroid

The retina is held in place by the

vitreous body

Photoreceptors are located in the

retina

The blind spot of the retina is so-called because

there are no rods or cones there

The central fovea is

the area of highest visual acuity on the retina

In the process of forming an image on the retina, convergence occurs to allow

three-demensional image formation

Which of the following occurs when trying to focus on a close object

contraction of the ciliary muscle to make the lens more convex

The four refracting media of the eye, listed in the sequence in which they refract light, are

cornea (4), aqueous humor (3), lens (2), vitreous body (1)

Which of the following lists the route of impulse transmission in the correct order

photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract

The auditory (Eustachian) tube connects the

middle ear and the nasopharynx

The ossicles are the major structures of the

middle ear

The middle ear is normally filled with

air

The role of the stapedius muscle is to

limit vibration of the stapes

Receptor potentials are produced when

stereocilia bend against the tectorial membrane

The primary function of the utricle and saccule is to

monitor static equilibrium

Which of the following sequences correctly traces the sound wave across the middle ear

tympanic membrane (1), malleus (2), Incus (3), stapes (4), oval window (5)

The endolymph filled ____ lies between the perilymph filled ____and the ____ separated by the ____ and ____ membranes respectively

cochlear duct, scala vestibuli, scala tympani, basilar, vestibular

The buffy coat of centrifuged blood consists mainly of

white blood and platelets

The most abundant of the plasma proteins are the

albumins

The total blood volume in an average adult is about

5 liters

ALL of the following are important functions of plasma proteins EXCEPT

transportation of oxygen

The percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs is called the

hematocrit

Pluripotent stem cell produce

all answers are correct

"5 million per microliter" is a value falling within the normal adult range for the number of

erthrocytes

Erythropoietin is synthesized by the

kidneys

Oxygen is transported by red blood cells by binding

the iron ion in the heme portion of hemoglobin

The primary organs whose macrophages are responsible for phagocytizing worn-out red blood cells are the

spleen and liver

Agranular leukocytes that are phagocytic are the

monocytes

The most abundant of the leukocytes are the

neutrophils

The formed elements that are fragments of larger cells called megakaryocytes are

thrombocytes

When blood red cells wear out, the iron is saved and most of the remainder of the hemoglobin is

also saved

A clot in an unbroken vessel is called

thrombosis

So-called natural killer cells are a form of

lymphocyte

Type A blood has an isoantibody called

agglutinin A

Which of the following indicates a normal differential count in a healthy adult

65% neutrophils, 25% lymphocytes, 6% monocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1% basophils

Type O is considered the theoretical universal

donor because there are no A or B isoantigens on RBCs

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