Biology 102 Lab 1

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___ is the study of biological diversity and of the evolutionary relationships among organisms

Systematics

__ is the subdivision of systematics which deals with biological diversity

Taxonomy

__ is the subdivision of systematics which deals with evolutionary relationships.

Phylogeny

Taxonomy consisting of three associated activities:

-Identification of specimens
-classification
-nomenclature

Ordering organisms into groups based on perceived similarities and differences

classification

Naming groups according to accepted rules

nomenclature

A ___ is a unit of classification

taxon

biologists use a system of classification and nomenclature originated by ___, an 18th Century Swedish naturalist.

Linnaeus

Linnaeus created a hierarchy of taxonomic levels. The main levels in use today are:

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

phylum plural:

phyla

genus plural:

genera

species plural

species

Modern biological classification attempts to group organisms according to their evolutionary relationships (_____) and thus represents a hypothesis regarding relatedness.

Phylogeny

Two species in the same taxon are ___ closely related to each other than they are to species in other taxa of the same level.

more

The classification system is ___

hierarchical

All members of the Order Carnivora have a common ancestor that they do not share with any other species outside the order. A taxon that meets this criterion is said to be ___

monophyletic

Most taxonomic names are based upon ___ roots

Latin or Greek

Knowing the ___, or origin, of a taxonomic name often helps people to remember the name

etymology

the scientific name of a species consists of two elements, the ___ and the ___

generic name and the specific name

Both genus and species names either are ___ or ___

underlined or in italics

Prokaryotes
domain
kingdom
domain

bacteria
cyanobacteria
archaea

Eukaryotes
domain
kingdom
Phylum __ and Phylum ____

Eukarya
animalia
calcarea silicea

living organisms are classified into ____

three domains

the cells of __ and ___ lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and also are extremely small

Bacteria archaea

___ lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and also are extremely small

prokaryotes

the larger cells of ___ have both a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

eukaryotes

the similarity in appearance between bacteria and archaea is only superficial-molecular data reveal that archaeans are more closely related to ___ than they are to ___.

eukaryotes
bacteria

All prokaryotes are ___ organisms, most of which have one of three basic shapes

single-cell
1. bacillus
2. coccus
3. Spirillum

rod-shaped

bacillus

Bacilli that occur in chains are called

streptobacilli

spherical

coccus

cocci occurring in chains are called

streptococci

cocci occurring in cluster are called

staphlococci

spiral

spirillum

spirilla only occur

singly

microbiologist usually begin their identification of bacteria by employing the ___

Gram stain

gram positive bacteria stain__, which chemically interacts with bacterial cell walls containing ___

purple
peptidoglycan

other bacteria have little peptidoglycan and do not appear purple after having been staind. Thus many bacteria are classified are

gram negative stain

several kingdoms occur in Domain Bacteria. We study only one- the Kingdom__

Cyanobacteria

The kingdom Cyanobacteria contains organisms known as ____

blue-green bacteria

These, cyanobacteria, gram-____ bacteria are the only prokaryotes that carry out ___, making organic molecules from carbon dioxide and using solar energy(as do algae and plants).

negative
oxygen generating photosynthesis

individual cells often are attached to each other by _____.

gelatinous sheaths

Asexual reproduction occurs by _____or ____

fragmentation or fission

___ where a single cell breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new cells

fragmentation

___-where the cell separates into two equal sized cells.

fission

Anabaena consists of filaments of ___ cells

rounded

specialized cells called ___ and ___ usually are present interspersed amoung the barrel shaped ___ which undergo ___

akinetes
heterocysts
vegetative cells
photosynthesis

___- large, oval, densely packed spore-like reproductive cells that resist drying

akinetes

___ fix atmospheric nitrogen (convert it to __ and ___)

heterocysts
ammonia and nitrate

Oscillatoria consists of filaments of __ cells

rectangular

Merismopedia which is ___

non-filamentous

Many archaeans are found in extreme environments, and include ___, ___, ____, and ___.

methanogens
thermophiles
acidophiles
halophiles

methanogens ___ producers

methane

___ inhabitants of extremely hot waters

thermophiles

capable of living at extremely low pH

acidophiles

tolerant of extremely high salinities

halophiles

archaeans also inhabit more "normal"environments, and may be the _____.

most abundant organisms on earth

Oscillatoria

Oscillatoria

Merismopedia

Merismopedia

All remaining organisms you will study in this course belong to the Domain Eukarya. This domain includes the __-,___,___ and a wide variety of other ____ often collectively termed "___"

animals, plants, fungi
organisms
protists

You will begin the study of Eukaryotes with the Kingdom ____, which is the _____, both in terms of number of ___ and number or ___.

Animalia
largest Kingdom
phyla
species

Animals are multicellular eukaryotes that ___ their food.

Ingest

Until recently, sponges belonged to a single phylum, Phylum ____(__=pores, ___=bearing)

Porifera
pori
fera

based on analysis of molecular data, sponges now are divided into two phyla:___ and ____

Phylum Calcarea and Phylum Silicea

All sponges are ___, including both __ and ___ species

aquatic
marine
freshwater

Adult sponges are ___ and ___, but their larvae are __ and capable of ___.

benthic
sessile
motile
dispersing in the plankton

___ bottom-dwelling

benthic

attached to objects___

sessile

___ lack distinct tissues and organs - they have no nervous, muscular, circulatory systems, etc.

sponges

The basic body plan of a sponge is ___

asymmetrical

Sessile, adult sponge obtains nourishment by ___, it filters microscopic food particles from the water

suspension feeding

The sponge accomplishes suspension feeding by having a body that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a cavity, the ____

spongocoel

numerous pores, or ___, pierce the body wall. (sponges)

ostia

one or more large openings, or ___ are found on the upper surface of the sponge

Oscula
singular osculum

flagellated cells called ___ draw water through the ostia and out the osculum .

Choanocytes

collars of ___ on the choanocytes filter out edible food particles

cytoplasm

the choanocyte is a unique, or ___, character of the sponges

diagnostic

Spicules made of either ___ or ___ form the skeleton of many sponges.

calcium carbonate
silica

1. Osculum
2. Spicule
3. Porocyte
4. Pinacocyte
5. Choanocyte
6. Amoebocyte
7. Spongocoel
8. Ostium
9. Mesohyl

The glass sponge skeleton consists of fused ____.

silica spicules

Examine a bath sponge and note that this sponge is soft and pliable. This is because the skeleton of these sponges is formed from flexible fibers composed of the protein ___ instead of by spicules

spongin

The unit of classification between order and genus is ___

Family

The plural of genus is ____ and of species is ___

genera and species

The Domain most closely related to the Domain Eukarya is the Domain ____

Archaea

The prokaryotic basic shape that occurs either in chains or cluster is ____

coccus

Blue-green bacteria are in the Kingdom ___

cyanobacteria

The process whereby bacteria reproduce by splitting into two cells is called ___ as opposed to breaking into several parts, which is ____

fission
fragmentation

Archaeans that release methane gas

methanogens

archaeans that can live in very hot water

thermophiles

Archaeans that can live in very acidic water

acidophiles

Archaeans that can live in very salty water

halophiles

Animals, plants, fungi and "protists" are in the Domain ___

Eukarya

The term for bottom-dwelling is ___; attached to objects is ____

benthic
sessile

Water enters a sponge through small openings called___ , goes into a large spaced called the ___, and leaves through ___

ostia
spongocoel
osculum

spicules are made of either __ or ___

calcium carbonate or silica

in sponges, cells with flagella and collars that catch food particles are called ___

Choanocytes

All sponges belong to Kingdom __

Animalia

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