___ is the study of biological diversity and of the evolutionary relationships among organisms
Taxonomy consisting of three associated activities:
-Identification of specimens
biologists use a system of classification and nomenclature originated by ___, an 18th Century Swedish naturalist.
Linnaeus created a hierarchy of taxonomic levels. The main levels in use today are:
Modern biological classification attempts to group organisms according to their evolutionary relationships (_____) and thus represents a hypothesis regarding relatedness.
Two species in the same taxon are ___ closely related to each other than they are to species in other taxa of the same level.
All members of the Order Carnivora have a common ancestor that they do not share with any other species outside the order. A taxon that meets this criterion is said to be ___
the scientific name of a species consists of two elements, the ___ and the ___
generic name and the specific name
the cells of __ and ___ lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and also are extremely small
the similarity in appearance between bacteria and archaea is only superficial-molecular data reveal that archaeans are more closely related to ___ than they are to ___.
All prokaryotes are ___ organisms, most of which have one of three basic shapes
gram positive bacteria stain__, which chemically interacts with bacterial cell walls containing ___
other bacteria have little peptidoglycan and do not appear purple after having been staind. Thus many bacteria are classified are
gram negative stain
These, cyanobacteria, gram-____ bacteria are the only prokaryotes that carry out ___, making organic molecules from carbon dioxide and using solar energy(as do algae and plants).
oxygen generating photosynthesis
specialized cells called ___ and ___ usually are present interspersed amoung the barrel shaped ___ which undergo ___
Many archaeans are found in extreme environments, and include ___, ___, ____, and ___.
archaeans also inhabit more "normal"environments, and may be the _____.
most abundant organisms on earth
All remaining organisms you will study in this course belong to the Domain Eukarya. This domain includes the __-,___,___ and a wide variety of other ____ often collectively termed "___"
animals, plants, fungi
You will begin the study of Eukaryotes with the Kingdom ____, which is the _____, both in terms of number of ___ and number or ___.
Until recently, sponges belonged to a single phylum, Phylum ____(__=pores, ___=bearing)
based on analysis of molecular data, sponges now are divided into two phyla:___ and ____
Phylum Calcarea and Phylum Silicea
Adult sponges are ___ and ___, but their larvae are __ and capable of ___.
dispersing in the plankton
___ lack distinct tissues and organs - they have no nervous, muscular, circulatory systems, etc.
Sessile, adult sponge obtains nourishment by ___, it filters microscopic food particles from the water
The sponge accomplishes suspension feeding by having a body that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a cavity, the ____
one or more large openings, or ___ are found on the upper surface of the sponge
Examine a bath sponge and note that this sponge is soft and pliable. This is because the skeleton of these sponges is formed from flexible fibers composed of the protein ___ instead of by spicules
The process whereby bacteria reproduce by splitting into two cells is called ___ as opposed to breaking into several parts, which is ____
Water enters a sponge through small openings called___ , goes into a large spaced called the ___, and leaves through ___