DNA structure and Replication

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Transformation

genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, of genetic material from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membrane

Bacteriophage

a virus that infects bacteria

Semi-Conservative

method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new

Polymerization

a chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer or polymeric compound

Histone

protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

Telomere

Endcap of a strand of DNA

Telomerase

an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide

DNA Polymerase

an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule

Template Strand

The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.

Primer

An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.

Primase

An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.

Replication Fork

A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.

Okazaki Fragments

Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.

DNA Ligase

an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments

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