Week 18 & 19 History Vocabulary

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Atlantic Pact

U.S. took the lead in the development of this collective security system. Included the U.S., Canada, and 10 European nations. Signed the to establish a military agreement for the joint defence of Europe. The U.S. had committed itself firmly for the first time in American history and thus NATO - the NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION - was formed.

Fair Deal

Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing

22nd Amendment

Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.

Presidential Succession Act

allowed for the speaker of the house to take over as president if there is no vice president

CIA

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency primarily to obtain and analyze information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons in order to advise public policymakers

Korean War

Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.

Inchon

a port on the western coast of South Korea, on the Yellow Sea, near Seoul; . It was the site of a successful invasion by U.S. troops that enabled them to return Seoul to South Korea.

Seoul

The capital of South Korea

Joseph McCarthy

US senator; claimed that their were Soviet spies and Communists within the government but had no evidence; discredited by the US senate

McCarran-Walter Act

this law reaffirmed the quota system that limited how many people could enter the country that had been established for each country in 1924.

Alger Hiss

A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.

Chiang Kai-shek

General and leader of Nationalist China. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.

Syngman Rhee

Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War

The Rosenbergs

Communists who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union

Omar Bradley

United States general who played an important role in the Allied victory in World War II by liberating France and invading of Germany

ANZUS Pact

This was a security treaty between the Australians, New Zealanders and the United States.This treaty was publicly declared so that any potential enemy or threat would know that any of these countries did not stand alone.

Nikita Khrushchev

leader of USSR after Stalin who agreed to withdraw missiles in Cuba in the Cold War

Matthew Ridgeway

Replaced MacArthur in Korea, a United States Army general. He held several major commands and was most famous for salvaging the United Nations war effort in the Korean War.

38th Parallel

latitudinal line that divided North and South Korea at approximatly the midpoint of the peninsula

Yalu River

the Chinese-Korean border where MacArthur bombed bridges crossing into China and attacked the north; caused Mao to send Chinese soldiers to aid the north in pushing the battle back to the 38th parallel

Pusan

a city in southeastern South Korea on the Korean Strait, where Douglas MacArthur landed his Marines, temporary Capital of SK

Adlai Stevenson

The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower and lost. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads".

John Foster Dulles

As Secretary of State under Eisenhower. viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine

H-Bomb

the hydrogen bomb - a thermonuclear weapon much more powerful than the Atomic bomb

Demilitarized Zone

a region where military forces or weaponscould not enter

U-2

U.S. spy plane shot down by the Soviets

Thomas Dewey

the Governor of New York and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency. leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party; he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft

Red Scare

period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infultration of communists in the US gvnt

Atomic Energy Commission

agency responsible for research into atomic energy and its peacetime uses in the United States, Created a monopoly for the Federal government's control of fissionable materials, Control atomic energy, control spread of nuclear weapons. Russia refused to let the US inpect.

National Security Act

created a centralized Department of Defense to coordinate the actions of the armed forces. also created a National Security Council to coordinate the development of foreign policy in the Cold War and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to employ spies and gather information on foreign countries

Dwight D. Eisenhower

American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe then became pres

Panmunjon

Eisenhower went for peace talks in korean war. no one wins war, no peace treaty.

Dixiecrats

southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.

Brinksmanship

The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.

Richard Nixon

he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soldiers from South Vietnam

Massive Retaliation

The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.

Strom Thurmond

Democratic governor of South Carolina who headed the State's Rights Party (Dixiecrats); he ran for president against Truman and his mild civil rights proposals and eventually joined the Republican Party.

Ho Chi Minh

communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war in Indochina and made it unwinnable

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