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chemical building blocks final chapters 1-4

Solid

A state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume

Crystalline solids

a solid that is made up of crystals in which particles are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern-melts at a specific temp

Amorphous solid

A solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern--does not melt at a distinct temp.

Liquid

a state of matter in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume

Fluid

a substance that flows

Surface tension

the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together

Viscosity

a liquid's resistance to flow

Gas

a state matter that does not have a definite shape or volume

Melting

The change in state from a solid to a liquid

Melting point

The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid; the same as the freezing point, or temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid-- 0ºc

Freezing

the change of state from a liquid to a solid

Vaporization

The change of state from a liquid to a gas

Evaporation

the process that occurs when vaporization takes place only on the surface of a liquid

Boiling

The process that occurs when vaporization takes place inside a liquid as well as on the surface

Boiling point

The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas; the same as the condensation point, or temperature at which a gas changes to a liquid 100 °C

Condensation

The change of state from a gas to a liquid(opposite of vaporization)

Sublimation

The change in state from a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid state

Pressure

the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface

Boyle's Law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture

Rule of Boyle's Law

when volume +, pressure -

Charle's Law

a principle that describes the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas at constant pressure

Rule of Charle's Law

When temp + , vol. +

Pressure Formula...

P=F/A

Boyle's Law on a Graph

Vary Inversely(curved)
ManipulatedVariable(x)--Volume(mL,L,cm3..)
Responding Variable(y)--Pressure(kPa)
Temp is kept constant

Charle's Law on a Graph

Directly Proportional(straight)
Manipulated Variable(x)--Temp(K)
Responding Variable(y)--Volume(mL,L,cm3....)
Pressure is kept constant

Properties of a Solid

fixed,closely packed arrangement of the particles

Particles of a Gas

spread apart filling the space available--in a constant motion

Particles of a Liquid

Free to move around

Three States of Mater

solid
liquid
gas

Fourth State of Matter

Plasma

Chemical Properties of Matter

A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances

Physical Properties of Matter

A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed w/out changing it to another substance

Molecule

a particle made of two or more atoms bonded together--- the smallest part of a compound

Atom

the basic particle from which all elements are made--- smallest part of an element

Elements

A pure substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means

Compounds

A pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined

Mixtures

two or more substances that are not chemically combined

Homogenous Mixture

A mixture in which materials are blended evenly so that the mixture is the same throughout; also called a solution

Heterogeneous Mixture

a mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object

Weight

A measure of the force of gravity on an object

Volume of a Liquid

LWH

Density

The measurement of how much mass of a substance is contained in a given volume

Density Formula

mass/volume

Physical Change

a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance

Chemical Change

a change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances

Example of Physical Change

tearing, drawing, pressing, cutting, folding, mixtures, dissolving

Example of Chemical Change

burning, fizzing bubbling, change in odor, change in color, new substance is made, change in temperature.

Endothermic Change

A change in which energy is absorbed

Exothermic Change

A change in which energy is released

Chemical Energy Changing Into Other Forms of NRG

during a chemical change

Particles of an Atom

Proton(+)
Neutron
Electron(e-)

Particles in a Nuclei

Protons and Neutron

Charge of a Proton

+

Charge of a Electron

-

Charge of a Neutron

No charge

Why do Scientists Make Models of Atoms

because the atoms are so small and fast

Mendeleev Periodic Table

arranged in order of increasing atomic mass

Moseley Periodic Table

arranged by the atomic number

Mendeleev Noticed that...

a pattern of properties appeared when he arranged the elements into order of increasing atomic mass

Atomic Number

the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus

Chemical Symbol

A one or two letter representation of an element

Atomic Mass Number

The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Properties of Metal

Shininess,Malleability,Ductility, and Conductivity

Alkali Metals

The elements of group 1 of the periodic table.,

Alkali Metals Reactivity

very reactive

How are Elements Synthesized

By colliding particles at very high speeds also by nuclear fusion and nuclear reactions

Halogen Family

Group 17 of the periodic table contains flourine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine

Hydrogen

makes up largest amount of the Sun

Supernova

Creates heavier elements by nuclear fusion

Polymer

consists of repeated, linked units. The units may be identical or structurally related to each other.

How Do Polymers Form

when chemical bonds link large numbers of monomers in a repeating pattern

Henri Becquerel

discovered radioactivity

Pierre and Marie Curie

found two new radioactive elements (uranium and pitchblende) that were added to he periodic table

Alpha Particles are Blocked by

Paper

Beta Particles are Blocked by

thin piece of metal

Gamma Rays are Blocked by

Concrete or Lead

Half Life

the time required for one half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation an decay products

What Happens in Radiation Thearpy

radioactive elements are used to destroy unhealthy cells

Why are Radioactive Materials Dangerous

Because they give off radiation

How are Radioactive Materials Managed

placed in a specially designed containers that are buried underground in a dry tunnel

Rule for Alpha Decay

Move 2 to the left
Subtract 4 on top
Subtract 2 on bottom

Rule for Beta Decay

Move 1 to the right
Dont Change Top!
Add 1 to the bottom

Rule for Gamma Decay

DONT CHANGE ANYTHING

Metals

Largest group on the periodic table

Malleability

the ability to be hammered into a sheet

Ductility

the ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire

Directly Proportional

a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph is a straight line passing through the point (0,0)

Vary Inversely

a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph forms a curve that slopes downward

Density is Measured in

g/cm3

Example of Endothermic Reaction

photosynthesis, decomposition of water, melting ice cubes,

Example of Exothermic Reaction

making ice cubes,nuclear fission,a candle flame

Example of Heterogeneous Mixtures

Italian Salad Dressing
Orange Juice with Pulp
Soil

Example of Homogeneous Mixtures

Sugar solution when sugar is completely dissolved
brewed tea or coffee
Air

Volume is Measured in

mL, L, cm3

Six Types of Energy

Kinetic
Potential
Chemical
Electromagnetic
Electrical
Thermal

Examples of Kinetic Energy

bowling ball
roller coaster going down

Examples of Potential Energy

roller coaster at the top
diver on top of board

Examples of Chemical Energy

Wood burning
Evaporation

Examples of Electromagnetic Energy

microwave
x-ray

Examples of Electrical Energy

computer
cell phone

Examples of Thermal Energy

Coals burning
Sun

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