Colonial Society- Structure
~ In contrast to England, it was much more flexible.
~Possible for a poor person to achieve economic success
~Class tensions were present
~Yeoman farmers made up the largest group of people, who were the basis for democracy.
Skipper would leave New England with a cargo of rum, travel to Africa, and trade the rum for slaves. Then it would sail to the West Indies and trade the slaves for sugar and molasses, which was distilled into rum. The process repeated.
~In New England, it was the Puritan church
~In southern colonies and the New York City area, it was the Anglican church (Church of England)
~King of England was head of Anglican church. He could exercise both religious and political power.
~With the American Revolution came a strong push for disestablishment of churches.
~ Congregationalist minister
~Set off a religious revival known as the First Great Awakening in 1734.
~Believed in salvation through good works and dependence on God's grace
~Famous for his "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" sermon.
~One of two leading figures in the First Great Awakening
~Relied on emotional appeals and effective oratory to convert sinners
~Listeners would cry out, roll on the ground, and faint as he described the terrors of hell
First Great Awakening
~ Occurred at a time when vitality was oozing away from many religious denominations.
~Sparked by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield
~Broke down sectional boundaries an denominated lines, creating greater religious diversity
~It was a step towards the American Revolution
~Consisted of a governor (appointed by the king), who had do do as the king wished and follow his given laws
~Governors often found themselves caught between what the king wanted them to do and the laws passed by the assembly
~The right to vote was not universal. It was restricted for free, white, adult males who, depending on the colony, belonged to the established church and/or owned land and paid sufficient taxes on that land.
~Frontiersmen in North Carolina felt the colonial elite was not representing their interests.
~They formed armed bands to halt foreclosures, but were eventually defeated by the state militia
~During the Revolution, many of the former Regulators became Loyalists, not because they loved England, but because they saw the colonial elite as their main enemy
~Parliament levied duties on molasses, sugar, and rum imported to the colonies from non-British sources to discourage trade with the French West Indies
~New England, especially, protested.
~Colonists proceeded to ignore the law and engage in wholesale smuggling,.
Treaty of Utrecht
~Ended Queen Anne's War (1702-1713); France gave Britain Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region
~Ushered in a generation of peace during which Britain engaged int eh policy of salutary neglect, allowing the colonies to develop a degree of independence.