(1866) Also known as the Seven Weeks' War
Resulted in a Prussian victory & Austria permanently excluded from German affairs
Otto Von Bismarck
(Germany) His goal was to unite Germany.
He appointed William I as prime minister of Prussia in 1862
The upper house of the German federal parliament whose members are appointed by the various state governments
Meaning "charcoal burners"
The most famous of the secret republican societies seeking to unify Italy in the 1820's
Count Camillo Cavour
(Italy)(1810-1861) prime minister of Sardinia-Piedmont & transformed Italy into a nation-state under a constitutional monarchy - Victor Emmanuel in 1861
Used the Crimean War to gain favor with Napoleon III
(1853-1856) resulted from the rivalry between the Ottoman Empire & Russia.
Russia was defeated & lost territory.
Shattered the Concert of Europe.
First military war to be covered by war correspondents & photographers
(1864) Prussia & Austria defeated Denmarck, which leads to conflict over Schleswig-Holstein
(Great Britain) led the conservative ministry in the House of Commons.
Prime minister 2 different times, imperialism
Captain Alfred Dreyfus
(France) found guilty of passing secret information to the German army, however, the evidence against him was flimsy & later was revealed to have been forged
Involved accusations that Captain Dreyfus had passed military secrets to the German army
(1870-1871) enabled Bismarck to bring the states of Southern Germany into the confederation. France was defeated & the German empire was proclaimed
A loose federation of 39 states which was established at the Congress of Vienna. They met as a central diet in Frankfurt
(Italy) along with Mazzini led insurrections in Italy throughout the 1830's-1840's
(Great Britain) prime minister. Began as a Tory, ended as a liberal. He supported Robert Peel, free trade, repeal of the corn laws, & efficient administration
Prime minister 4 different times
Hatt-I Sharif of Gulhane
(1839) the sultan (Egypt?) issued this decree & it attempted to reorganize the empire's administration & military along European lines. This decree opened the Tanzimat Era of the Ottoman Empire
Extended civic equality to Ottoman subjects regardless of their religion
(1898) the French novelist Emile Zola came to the defense of Dreyfus & attacked the army in this newspaper article
Emperor Francis Joseph
(Habsburg Empire) supported a centralized administration for the Habsburg Empire.
This system was essentially a military & bureaucratic regime dominated by German-speaking Austrians
Land and Freedom Society
A radical society which desired a social revolution in Russia
1) adhered to the principles of Alexander Herzen
2) based on the populism movement
3) compromised of young Russians
4) split into factions with the other being called "The People's Will"
(Italy) founded the Young Italy Society whose goal was to drive Austria from Italy & establish an Italian republic
(France) the end of his regime was at the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War
North German Confederation
In 1867, Prussia annexed Hanover, Hesse Kassel, Nassau, & the city of Frankfurt, all of which had supported Austria during the war, & deposed their rulers. Under Prussian leadership, all Germany north of the main river now formed this!
President = King of Prussia
Chancellor = Bismarck
New municipal government that intended to administer Paris separately from the rest of France
Charles Stewart Parnell
(Ireland) leader of the Irish movement for a just land settlement & for home rule
(Russia) drawn from ideas of Herzen & other radicals. They sought a social revolution based on the communal life of Russian peasants
The chief radical society was called Land and Freedom
Battle of Sedan
(1870) decisive battle of the Franco-Prussian war. Germans prevail. Napoleon III is captured
1) established in the midst of French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
2) it's existance was threatened by the Paris Commune
3) established a constitution in 1875 which formally created a republican form of government
4) the Boulanger crises, Panama scandal, & Freyfus Affair were threats to its existance
Treaty of Frankfurt
(1871) officially ended the Franco-Prussian War, but also led directly to the creation of the Paris Commune
The desire by Czechs to establish a triple monarchy so they would be on equal footing with the Hungarians. Both the Magyars & the Germans of Bohemia opposed these effects
A French novelist who came to Dreyfus's defense & attacked the army in his newspaper article "J'accuse"
He accused the army of denying Dreyfus due process, fprging evidence, & of being anti-semitic
1) extension of the franchise
2) spread of public education
3) home rule for Ireland
4) merit exams in the civil service & military