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Key ID's for American Pageant, Ch. 27, 9th edition

Little Big Horn Battle

the Sioux turned to war after Black Hills, Custer assigned to defeat them and send back to reservation. Custer wiped out after fighting Crazy Horse at Little Big Horn. Famous battle because Custer was being considered for Democratic President. Custers defeat ruined centennial celebration.

Chief Joseph, Nez Pierce

Chief Joseph led warriors, old people, women, and children on a 1700 mile journey to Canada to avoid being sent to a reservation. Caught when they almost reached Canada, sent to reservation in Kansas.

Conquest of Plains Indians

Transcontinental railroads brought troops, cattlemen, and farmers. Indians suffered from disease and alcoholism. Buffalo population destroyed, no food supply, fuel, or hides.

Dawes Severalty Act

Abolished Indian tribes and gave the heads of Indian families 160 acres of reservation land to farm, and granted U.S. citizenship. But they didn't know how to farm, and citizenship was postponed until after 25 years. White speculators bought up about 2/3 of the reservation land.

Problems Facing American Farmers

Some couldn't afford machinery, or were dependent on one crop. Farmers also suffered from droughts, etc. Protective tariffs raised the prices of manufactured goods, and trusts raised price of railroad transportation.

Patrons of Husbandry

provide social contact for farmers; press for laws regulating railroads and grain elevators, eliminate the middleman and increase farmers' profits. taken over by the Alliances who pressed for Granger laws to regulate railroads. Alliances established National People's party (populists).

People's Party or Populists

demanded 1) free and unlimited coinage of silver at 16:1 2) a graduated income tax, 3) government ownership of railroad, telegraph, and telephone systems, 4) a secret ballot and direct election of US senators, and 5) shorter working hours and restrictions on immigration

Frederick Jackson Turner

In"The Significance Frontier in American History." Said frontier = social equality, political democracy and optimism,required employers to improve wages and working conditions,led to wasteful use of the land. Rid of frontier = more imperialistic, tensions between labor and management, less free lands available (farmers take better care of land), call for immigration limit b/c of industrial job competition.

Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee

Indians ignored farm work, wanted to be free of whites and wanted buffalo to come back. Small fight broke out, soldiers heard and fired machine guns. two hundred Indians and thirty-five whites dead.This was the last major fight of the Indian wars.

Sand Creek, Black Hills

Sand Creek serve in Colorado Indians ran out of food, raided whites, militia called in. Indians surrendered but Colonel J.M. Chivington killed 450 Indians.Black Hills, S. Dakota, Treaty signed to give Indians land in Black Hills. Gold discovered, white miners took over land and violated treaty.

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