The holy city of Islam, located in Saudi Arabia; in the West. Prophet Muhammad was conceived here. A great trading city.
The founder of the Islam religion; to Muslims, he is the ultimate and final prophet.
The holy book of islam. Contains all of Muhammad's teachings and encounters with God's holy people.
|caliph||Muslim ruler, who claimed religious authority to rule.|
|province||A division of a country or an empire|
|monotheism||Belief in a single God. Judaism, Catholocism, and Islam all share this same belief, the belief in one God.|
|Sunnah||The example that Muhammad set for Muslims about how to live., (Islam) the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran|
|hadith||Accounts of Muhammad's words or actions that are accepted as having authority for Muslims.|
|Five Pillars of Faith|| |
Shahadah (profession of faith), salat (daily worship), zakat (almsgiving), siyam (fasting), and hajj (the pilgrimage to Makkah).
Centers of worship for Muslims.
|Ramadan||the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, during which Muslims are required to fast.|
|Zakat||Third Pillar: giving to those in need (usually a percentage of their wealth)|
|almsgiving||The practice of Christian charity through the selfless donation of time, money, and other resources. Almsgiving, together with prayer and fasting, are traditionally recommended to foster interior penance.|
|imam||a leader of prayer in a mosque.|
|jihad||the obligation of Muslims to struggle or exert themselves "in the way of God ; doesn't necessarily refer to an armed struggle|
|shari'ah||Islamic code of law that includes rules for all aspects of life.|
|prophet||A messenger of God.|
|Torah||Jewish Bible, Old Testament in the Christian Bible|
|muezzin||a person who calls the Muslim people to prayer from a mosque's tower, minaret|
|Ka'ba||a cube shaped shrine; pilgrims go the Makkah and circle it 7 times as directed in the Qur'an|
|polytheists||people who believe in many gods|
|Shari'ah||Body or collection of Islamic law. It is based on the Qur'an and Sunnah and covers Muslims' duties toward God.|
|Allah||God of Islam|
|Shahadah||First Pillar of Faith: declaration of faith; people not only believe in one God but submission to Him. God is the center of life.|
|Salat||Second Pillar: daily ritual to prayer. People are called to prayer 5 times per day.|
|crusades||a series of religious wars launched against Muslims by European Christians.|
|Siyam||Fourth Pillar: fasting for an entire month during Ramadan|
|Hajj||Fifth Pillar: pilgrimage to Makkah in the Islamic year's 12th month.|
|astrolabe||An instrument invented by Muslims that is used to determine direction by figuring out the position of the stars.|
|Dome of the Rock||in Jerusalem, where Muslims believe that Muhammad rose to heaven|
|Sunni||a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad|
|Shi'ites||Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Shi'ism is the state religion of Iran.|