Chapter 34: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War

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London Conference

International economic conference on stabilizing currency that was sabotaged by FDR

Philippines

Nation to which the U.S. promised independence in the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934

Good Neighbor Policy

FDR's repudiation of Theodore Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, stating his intention to work cooperatively with Latin American nations

Neutrality Acts

A series of laws enacted by Congress in the mid-1930's that attempted to prevent any American involvement in future overseas wars

Spanish Civil War

Conflict between the rebel Fascist forces of General Francisco Franco and the Loyalist government that severely tested U. S. Neutrality legislation

Quarantine Speech

Roosevelt's 1937 speech that proposed strong U.S. measures against overseas aggressors

Munich Conference

European diplomatic conference in 1938 where Britain and France conceded to Hitler's demands for Czechoslovakia

Appeasement

Term for the British-French policy of attempting to prevent war by granting German demands

Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

Leading U.S. group advocating American support for Britain in the the fight against Hitler

America First Committee

Leading isolationist group advocating that America focus on continental defense and non-involvement with the European war

Lend-Lease Law

Controversial 1941 law that made America the "arsenal of democracy" by providing supposedly temporary military material assistance to Britain

Atlantic Charter

U.S - British agreement of August 1941 to promote democracy and establish a new international organization for peace

Reuben James

U.S. destroyer sunk by German submarines off the coast of Iceland in October 1941, with the loss of over a hundred men.

Pearl Harbor

Major American Pacific naval base devastated in a surprise attack in December 1941

Cordell Hull

FDR's secretary of state, who promoted reciprocal trade agreements, especially with Latin America

Adolf Hitler

Fanatical Fascist leader of Germany whose aggressions forced the U.S. to abandon its neutrality

Benito Mussolini

The lesser partner of the Rome-Berlin Axis who invaded Ethiopia and joined the war against France and Britain

Gerald Nye

Instigator of 1934 Senate hearings that castigated WWI munitions manufacturers as "merchants of death"

Francisco Franco

Fascist rebel against the Spanish Loyalist government

Czechoslovakia

Small East European democracy betrayed into Hitler's hands at Munich

Poland

East European nation whose September 1939 invasion by Hitler set off WWII in Europe

France

Nation whose sudden fall to Hitler in 1940 pushed the U.S. closer to direct aid to Britain

Charles A. Lindbergh

One of the leaders of the "America First" organization and a chief spokesperson for U.S. isolationism.

Wendell Willkie

Dynamic dark horse Republican presidential nominee who attacked FDR only on domestic policy

Winston Churchill

Courageous prime minister who led Britain's lonely resistance to Hitler

Joseph Stalin

Russian dictator who first helped Hitler destroy Poland before becoming a victim of Nazi aggression in 1941

Iceland

North Atlantic nation near whose waters U.S. destroyers came under Nazi submarine attack

Hawaii

Site of a naval base where Japan launched a devastating surprise attack on the U.S.

Kristallnacht

A devastating night of Nazi attacks on Jewish businesses and synagogues that signaled a deepening of anti-Semitism and caused revulsion in the United States

Abraham Lincoln brigade

Young American volunteers who went to fight for Loyalist Spain against Franco's Spanish fascist rebels

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