# Scholastic Bowl

## 168 terms · Made by Phillip Shih for members of the Fremd High School Scholastic Bowl team.

### Pride and Prejudice

One character in this novel is advised to travel in rainy weather and is forced to remain at the house of her love interest. Charlotte Lucas accepts a marriage proposal from a clergyman employed by Lady Catherine; that man, Mr. Collins, had earlier proposed to the novel's protagonist. Lydia runs off with Wickham in this novel, in which Bingley and the protagonist's sister Jane later marry. For 10 points, Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy are wed in what Jane Austen novel?

### (Albert) Einstein

This man formulated ten eponymous field equations, and with Satyendra Bose he names a phase of matter where every particle is in the lowest quantum state, their "condensate." Time dilation and the twin paradox are two consequences of a theory created by this man, probably most well known for his proposition of mass-energy equivalence. For 10 points, name this Nobel laureate, most famous for his theories of relativity and the formula E equals m c squared.

### shogunates (accept bakufu; prompt "governments of Japan," "dynasties of Japan," etc.)

One of these governments was dominated by regents of the Hojo clan. Another sent the diplomat Faxecura to Acapulco and the Vatican, but later banned Christianity prior to the Shimabara rebellion. That one came to power after the Battle of Sekigahara and instituted sakoku, an isolationist policy ended in 1867. For 10 points, name this form of governance exemplified by the rule of Ieyasu Tokugawa, in which power rested with the namesake Japanese warlord.

### pi

An approximation of this value performed by dropping a needle on a floor with parallel strips is named for Buffon. The square root of two times this number appears in the normal distribution function, and squaring the circle is impossible because this number is transcendental. It is the period of the tangent function, as well as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. For 10 points, name this number which is approximately equal to 22/7 or 3.14.

### (Otto von )Bismarck

A ship named for this man sank the HMS Hood and was hunted by the British Navy. Succeeded by Leo von Caprivi, this man proposed the Three Emperors' League, declared war on Denmark over the province of Schleswig-Holstein, eliminated Catholic influence during the Kulturkampf, and edited a telegram to provoke the Franco-Prussian War. Serving during the rule of Wilhelm I, for 10 points, name this "Iron Chancellor" who led Prussia through the unification of Germany.

### Sikh(ism)

This faith's symbols include the stylized words "Ek Onkar" and an emblem of three blades surrounding a circle. Sugar water is stirred in its amrit baptism ceremony, through which believers join the Khalsa order. Known for its Golden Temple in Amritsar, its holiest book is the Adi Granth, and its "five Ks" include long hair and ceremonial daggers. For 10 points, name this monotheistic Indian religion founded by Guru Nanak, whose male adherents often wear turbans.

### chloroplasts

In some cells, these organelles can be linked together by tubes called stromules, while one of their functions is performed by the namesake molecule in antenna complexes. They are thought to have arisen from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis, and they are composed of thylakoids stacked into grana and suspended in stroma. For 10 points, name these organelles, found only in the cells of plants and some protists, where photosynthesis occurs.

Franz Sussmayr completed this composer's unfinished Requiem after his death. This composer of the "Jupiter" Symphony wrote an opera in which Leporello sings the Catalog Aria and whose title character goes to hell, Don Giovanni, as well as a work in which Tamino defeats the Queen of The Night, The Magic Flute. For 10 points, identify this Classical composer and child prodigy who wrote "Eine kleine Nachtmusik".

### (Jude) Law (accept David Jude Heyworth Law)

This actor played a cripple who sells his identity to Ethan Hawke's character in Gattaca. This actor won an award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role for Dickie Greenleaf in The Talented Mr. Ripley, and portrayed Soviet sniper Vasily Zaitsev opposite Joseph Fiennes in Enemy at the Gates. Two years later, he played Confederate soldier W.P. Inman in Cold Mountain. For 10 points, name this English actor who recently played Watson in Sherlock Holmes.

### Rembrandt (Harmenszoon van Rijn)

This artist painted a naked woman towelling off her leg in Bathsheba at her Bath and painted seven bearded men watching the title doctor dissect a cadaver. In addition to The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, this artist painted a work containing a young girl holding a chicken and dressed in gold. That paintings shows a blue and gold flag displayed over the titular group. For ten points, name the artist who zolpainted several militiamen in The Night Watch.

Its observance includes special evening prayers known as Tarawih, and it includes the time in which the Laylat al-Qadr, or Night of Power, occurred. This holiday contains multiple suhoors and iftars, and its central custom is begun by the fajr prayer and dictated by sawm, one of the Five Pillars. Ended by the festival of Eid al-Fitr, its central practice lasts from sunrise to sunset each day. For 10 points, name this Muslim month during which believers fast.

### (Edward Eastlin )Cummings

This author compared the moon to "a fragment of angry candy" in "the Cambridge ladies who live in furnished souls". This author mentions "bayonets roasted hot with heat" in a poem about a "conscientious object-or". This author of "i sing of Olaf glad and big" wrote a poem referring to "sun moon stars rain" and "women and men (both ding and dong)". For 10 points, name this poet of "anyone lived in a pretty how town" who notably avoided capital letters.

### inflation

The triangle model splits this phenomenon into built-in, demand-pull, and cost-push types, while its inverse relationship to unemployment was plotted by the inaccurate Phillips curve. Its rate is usually measured using a basket of frequently-purchased goods called the Consumer Price Index. Often mistaken for depreciation, its "hyper" variety occurred in the Weimar Republic and Zimbabwe. For 10 points, give this economic term that describes a general increase in prices.

### (Jack )Kerouac

This author wrote about the relationship between the half-Cherokee Mardou Fox and Leo Percepied in The Subterraneans. In one work by this author Alvah Goldbook reads Wail and a character based on Gary Snyder, Japhy Ryder, climbs the California Matterhorn. This author of The Dharma Bums wrote about a man who travels to meet Remi Boncoeur, Sal Paradise, in a work centered on Dean Moriarty. For 10 points, name this author of On The Road.

### (Oliver )Cromwell

This leader oversaw Britain's takeover of Jamaica; he fought John Lilburne's radical Levellers, sieged Drogheda while conquering Ireland, and won at Marston Moor and Naseby. A supporter of his used Pride's Purge to create the Rump Parliament from the Long Parliament, and this general of the New Model Army ordered the execution of Charles I. For 10 points, name this Puritan who won the English Civil War for Parliament, a Lord Protector of England.

### Egypt

This nation is home to Great Bitter Lake and Wadi Abbad. Abu Simbel and Port Said border major waterways in this arid nation. This nation disputes ownership of the Hala'ib Triangle with its southern neighbor, and also controls the Sinai Peninsula. Its Coptic population is centered at its city of Alexandria, while its capital is the most populous city in Africa. For 10 points, name this northern African nation with capital at Cairo.

### (Andrew )Jackson

This man vetoed a proposed bill to build the Maysville Road. This president's group of informal advisers, the "Kitchen Cabinet," was purged after the Peggy Eaton Affair, and the Webster-Hayne debates occurred during his term over the nullification crisis spurred on by his Vice President, John C. Calhoun. He shut down the 2nd Bank of the United States, and the Whigs formed to oppose him For 10 points, name this major general-turned-President, our 7th.

### Uncle Tom's Cabin

In this novel Tom Loker is healed by Quakers after being shot by George. Ophelia educates Topsy in this novel. The protagonist is sold by Arthur Shelby, and later saves Eva St. Clare from a fall in the river. After Casey and Emmeline escape, the title character is eventually killed by the overseers of the plantation owner Simon Legree. For 10 points, name this anti-slavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe.

### capacitors

When these devices are connected to inductors, current will oscillate at the circuit's resonant frequency, and Pieter van Musschenbroek invented an early one named the Leyden jar. The quantity measuring their strength is added when these are in parallel, and can be increased by inserting a dielectric. For 10 points, name these circuit elements consisting of two plates, whose ability to store charge is measured in farads.

### Michelangelo (Buonarotti)

This man created a pair of statues, one crouching and the other in an unfinished state of agony called the Rebellious and Dying Slaves. Those two works were commissioned for the tomb of his patron Pope Julius II. A mistranslation of the Old Testament led to a pair of horns on his Moses. This artist also carved a notably young-looking Virgin Mary and a notably uncircumcised biblical hero about to fire his sling. For 10 points, identify this sculptor of a notable David.

### Anna Karenina

This novel opens by describing the marital trouble of Dolly and Stephan, the latter of whom has slept with his French governess. One character in this novel complains about being compared to his famous half-brother Koznyshev. That character, Konstantin Levin, marries Kitty and the title character suspects Count Vronsky of having affairs with other women. For ten points, name this Tolstoy novel whose title character throws herself under a train.

### (Sigmund )Freud

This psychologist wrote of Aboriginal incest in Totem and Taboo, and described the "oceanic feeling" that inspires religion in Civilization and Its Discontents. He wrote about the "death instinct" in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, treated patients known as Rat Man and Little Hans for neurosis, and outlined the Oedipus complex in The Interpretation of Dreams. For 10 points, name this Jewish Austrian who defined the id, ego, and superego and founded psychoanalysis.

### For Whom the Bell Tolls

One character in this novel leads the protagonist to El Sordo's camp. Because of a suggestion from Rafael, one character tries to provoke Pablo despite Pilar's assertion that Pablo is not dangerous. The main character kills Anselmo when he blows up a bridge, after which he says goodbye to his love Maria. For 10 points, name this novel about Robert Jordan set during the Spanish Civil War, a work by Ernest Hemingway.

### diffusion

One type of this process involves gas passing through small holes and has its rate given by Graham's Law. Two laws named for Adolf Fick describe this process, and another type of this process occurs in hypotonic and hypertonic cells; that process involves water crossing a semipermeable membrane. Osmosis is a type of, for 10 points, what process in which particles move from regions of high concentration to low concentration?

### Wuthering Heights

In this novel, Frances dies after giving birth to her son Hareton. Her husband, Hindley, abuses this novel's central character, who later marries Isabella. Much of this novel is narrated by the maid Nelly Dean and its central character desires control over the property of Thrushcross Grange. This novel's main female character marries Edgar Linton despite her love for the aforementioned central character. For 10 points, name this novel about Cathy Earnshaw and Heathcliff by Emily Bronte.

### galaxy

The Cigar one of these objects is an example of the starburst type, and starbursts can also occur when these objects collide. Seyfert ones of these contain active nuclei which are believed to contain supermassive black holes. Edwin Hubble created a "tuning fork" mechanism for classifying these as barred spiral, elliptical, or spiral. For 10 points, name these groups of billions of stars, which include the nearby Andromeda and our own Milky Way.

In one of this author's novels, a character claims that another character's last words were his fiancee's name, while in another of his novels Dain Waris is shot and killed. In one work by this author the title sailor abandons the S. S. Patna. Another novel contains the line "The Horror! The Horror!" and is narrated by Marlow, who travels to the Belgian Congo and succeeds in finding the ivory trader Kurtz. For 10 points, name this Polish-born author of Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness.

### Poseidon

This god's children with Iphimedia were called the Aloadae, and he fathered Chrysaor and Pegasus by sleeping in Athena's temple with Medusa. In Athens, this god is identified with Erechtheus, as he lost the contest for control of that city to Athena. This husband of Amphitrite and father of Triton had the Cyclops son Polyphemus and is the patron god of horses. For 10 points, name this god who makes the earth shake with his trident, the Greek god of the sea.

### (People's Republic of )China

In one novel from this country, the protagonist is born with a sentient mineral in his mouth, Dream of The Red Chamber. Another work from this country centers on a band of 108 outlaws with a stronghold in a marsh. Another work from here details Pigsy and Sandy's journey to India. For 10 points, identify this country whose four great classics include Water Margin and Journey to the West, home to such writers as Li Po.

### (The )School of Athens

In the bottom left hand corner of this painting is a mirror showing the opposite wall. It is located in a room with a fresco of Parnassus. The architecture is modeled on that of Bramante, who is depicted as Euclid or Aristotle. The artist himself can be seen fleeing off to the right. Heraclitus muses at a desk and Diogenes lounges on the steps in the front. For ten points, name this painting in which the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle dispute at the center, a work by Raphael.

### giant

Beings of this type include the six-headed Thrudgelmir, his flood-surviving son Bergelmir, and the half-angel Nephilim of the Bible. Ymir was a primordial one of these beings in Norse myth, of whom Thor crushed one named Hrungnir, and the term jötunn often refers to their "frost" type. Greek ones included Orion and a bronze one named Talos. For 10 points, name these large mythological beings which include the antagonist of Jack and the Beanstalk and Goliath.

### Florida

This state has the southernmost American shad run in its longest river, the St. Johns River. The southwestern part of this state is the location of the Ten Thousand Islands and the Caloosahatchee River. Its Biscayne National Park contains an island off its southern coast, and this state contains Lake Okeechobee. For 10 points, name this state that contains the Everglades, is indented by Tampa Bay, and has cities like St. Petersburg, Orlando, and Miami.

### Louis

A king of this name called "the German" swore the Strasbourg Oath. Another won the Battle of Nancy against Charles the Bold of Burgundy, and a third bought part of the True Cross and died on the Eighth Crusade. Besides the Spider King and that Saint, another king of this name convened the Estates-General before the Bastille fell. For 10 points, name these French monarchs whose 16th was guillotined and whose long-reigning 14th was called the Sun King.

### Johann Sebastian Bach (prompt on Bach)

The sixteenth of one of this composer's sets is a French overture, and every third piece in that set is a canon. This creator of the Goldberg Variations composed a work in which the string section creates a "halo" around Jesus's words. In addition to creating that work, he wrote a book of 24 preludes and fugues in all major and minor keys, The Well-Tempered Clavier. For 10 points, identify this Baroque composer of the St. Matthew Passion.

### Babylon

This city's dynasties included the Kassites. Its surrounding empire won at Carchemish centuries after Tigliath-Pilaser I conquered this city, and Sennacherib leveled it during the rule of the Assyrian empire. One ruler of this city had his law-code inscribed on a huge black stone. In addition to Hammurabi, another ruler of this city built the Ishtar Gate and exiled the Jews from Judah. For 10 points, name this city whose ruler Nebuchadnezzar built the Hanging Gardens.

### ultraviolet light (or ultraviolet radiation; or ultraviolet spectrum; or UV light/spectrum/radiation)

Most Cherenkov radiation occurs in this spectrum, and the Rayleigh-Jeans law breaks down in this radiation's spectrum, causing its namesake "catastrophe." One kind of spectroscopy utilizes light in the visible range and this range, which encompasses wavelengths between 10 and 400 nanometers. For 10 points, name this type of radiation, emitted by blacklights, that includes light with a shorter wavelength than visible light but longer than that of x-rays.

### Immanuel Kant

This philosopher described a hypothetical world of free republics in Perpetual Peace. His moral ideas forbid lying to murderers about future victims' locations, and he described "mankind leaving its self-imposed immaturity" in What is Enlightenment? He examined the possibility of synthetic a priori truths, and his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals included his categorical imperative. For 10 points, name this German philosoper of Critique of Pure Reason.

### Haymarket Square Riot

Samuel Fielden, Oscar Neebe, and Michael Schwab were three men who, after this event, received pardons from Governor John Altgeld. Just prior to it, August Spies gave a speech telling his audience to hold together. Mathias Degan was its first casualty, and seven months after this event, the American Federation of Labor was founded. For 10 points, name this 1886 Chicago riot, during which civilians died after an anarchist threw a pipe-bomb at police officers.

### E(scherichia) coli

In experiments led by Richard Lenski, this organism evolved to metabolize citrate, while wild-type strains' inability to do so can be used to differentiate them from Salmonella. It is targeted by the T4 bacteriophage, and one early application of recombinant DNA enabled it to produce human insulin. This organism's O157:H7 strain is often the cause of food poisoning. For 10 points, name this Gram-negative intestinal bacterium commonly used as a model organism.

### Poland

This country was occupied during the Swedish Deluge, and every legislator had veto power in its parliament, or Sejm [SEY-m]. This country, which the Jagyellon dynasty unified with Lithuania, underwent three partitions by its neighbors, and a shipyard strike led by Lech Walesa in Gdansk started its anti-Communist Solidarity union. For 10 points, name this site of Auschwitz, a country whose invasion by Hitler in September 1939 sparked the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.

In 2007, this company became a partner in the "NORAD Tracks Santa" program. It has been criticized for alleged violations of net neutrality through its partnership with Verizon and previously for agreeing to censor its products to meet the requirements of the Chinese government. For 10 points, name this company started by Larry Page and Sergey Brin that owns YouTube and is the largest search engine in the United States.

### Manhattan Project (accept Manhattan Engineer District or Manhattan District; prompt on equivalents like "construction of the atomic bomb")

This operation had sites at Hanford, Washington and Oak Ridge, Tennessee; 60,000 acres of the latter were bought by the Army Corps of Engineers. Its military leader was Leslie Groves, and "Trinity" was one experiment from this project conducted at Los Alamos, New Mexico, on J. Robert Oppenheimer's watch. Inspired by a letter from Einstein, who denounced its product, for 10 points, name this World War II project in which the US developed the first atomic bomb.

### War of the Spanish Succession

In this war, the Duc de Villeroi was crushed at the battle of Ramilles, and in a major battle on the European front, Eugene of Savoy and the Duke of Marlborough defeated the Duc de Tallard at Blenheim. Its North American theater is known as Queen Anne's War, and Britain receiving Gibraltar was part of the terms of the treaty of Utrecht, which ended it. For 10 points, name this war lasting from 1702 to 1713, which started when Phillip V, a French Bourbon, took the throne of an Iberian nation.

### Lake Baikal

One city near this body of water, Ulan-Ude, is the capital of the region named for the indigenous Buryats, who inhabit the largest island in this lake, Olkhon. Another city near this lake is Irkutsk, which lies on the only river flowing out of this lake, the Angara. The Serenge and Lena Rivers flow into this lake, which is the oldest in the world. For 10 points, name this incredibly deep lake in Russia, the largest freshwater lake in the world by volume.

### filibuster (prompt on freebooter until Spanish word)

This term referred to men like Narciso López in Cuba and William Walker in Nicaragua, who led private military expeditions against Latin American nations. Derived from a Spanish word for "buccaneer," it also describes a process avoided by the nuclear option or by budget reconciliation that is ended by cloture. Used by Strom Thurmond to fight civil rights, for 10 points, name this process ended by 60 votes, in which a Senator speaks at length to block a bill.

### Andy Warhol (accept Andrew Warhola)

This artist worked on a series of multimedia events with Velvet Underground called Exploding Plastic Inevitable. This artist did a series of color silkscreens of car accidents and other mishaps called the Death and Disaster paintings. One of this artist's most famous works features the face of the titular movie star all over the titular diptych. For 10 points, name this leading Pop artist who painted the Marilyn Diptych and a bunch of Campbell's Soup cans.

### Romeo and Juliet

The prologue to this work describes how "civil blood makes civil hands unclean." One character in this play delivers the "Queen Mab" speech, and that character cries "a plague on both your houses!" before dying. One of the title characters confides in her nurse and does not wish to marry Count Paris. Tybalt kills Mercutio in this play, which ends with the Montagues' and Capulets' reconciliation. For 10 points, identify this play about two tragic lovers by Shakespeare.

### Frederic Chopin

Two of this composer's preludes bear the nicknames "Devil's Trill" and "Raindrop." This composer wrote a piece in C minor after a rebellion in his country; that work is the "Revolutionary" Etude. This composer of Fantasie-Impromptu also composed a waltz in D flat major more well-known as the Minute Waltz. For 10 points, name this Polish composer of polonaises, mazurkas, and ballades.

### Book of the Revelation of John (accept The Apocalypse of John)

Jehovah's Witnesses say its seventh chapter proves only 144,000 people will reach heaven. Addressed to seven churches of Asia and written by John of Patmos, it involves a third of all vegetation getting destroyed by hail and fire, the opening of seven seals, a seven-headed, ten-horned Beast, and the Whore of Babylon. For 10 points, name this New Testament book which features the Four Horsemen, a prophecy of Jesus' second coming and the end of the world.

### Les Miserables

One character in this work receives two silver candlesticks from a bishop shortly before stealing a coin from a child named Petit Gervais. A woman in this novel sells her hair and front teeth to earn money for her daughter, who works for a pair of innkeepers, the Thenardiers. In this novel, Marius courts Fantine's daughter Cosette, who is adopted by a man pursued by a police inspector named Javert. For 10 points, identify this novel featuring Jean Valjean, written by Victor Hugo.

### Fibonacci numbers (accept Fibonacci sequence)

The closed-form expression for these numbers is known as Binet's formula. The sum of the first n minus 2 of these numbers is equal to the nth of them minus one. One example of their application involves mating rabbits, while the ratio between consecutive numbers of this type approaches the golden ratio. For 10 points, identify this series of numbers which take their value from the sum of the two preceding numbers, beginning with the terms 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8.

### The Great Gatsby

This novel's narrator reads a schedule in a copy of Hopalong Cassidy, and its protagonist does business with Meyer Wolfsheim. This novel's characters frequently drive under the eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg. A golfer named Jordan Baker tells the narrator about the protagonist's love for a character who runs over Myrtle Wilson. For 10 points, name this novel narrated by Nick Carraway about the title character's love for Daisy Buchanan, written by F. Scott Fitzgerald.

### temperature

This quantity is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of an ideal gas, and along with pressure, it forms the axes of a phase diagram. The energy needed to increase this quantity in a substance is given by a substance's heat capacity. Conversion between two scales for this quantity involves multiplying by nine fifths, and a third scale for this quantity starts at absolute zero. For 10 points, name this quantity measured in Kelvin, Celsius, and degrees Fahrenheit.

### Hercules (accept Heracles)

This man was a servant to Omphale, and he built his own funeral pyre before dying in a poisoned shirt given by Nessus to his last wife Deianira. After killing his first wife, Megara, he fled to serve King Eurystheus. This slayer of the dragon Ladon got Iolaus' help to kill a monster in the Lernean swamp before cleaning the Augean stables and slaying the Nemean Lion. For 10 points, name this hero who killed the Hydra as part of Twelve Labors showing his strength.

### friction

This phenomenon is governed by Amontons' laws and has a "dry" variety modeled by an equation named for Coulomb. It can be measured with a tribometer and can be reduced to near zero in graphite. It is proportional to the normal force, and this force's namesake coefficient is denoted by the letter mu [MEW]. It comes in static and kinetic varieties. For 10 points, name this force which opposes the movement of surfaces in contact with each other.

### Scott Joplin

This composer created a piece in which the melody is to be played higher in its "B" section. He collaborated with Arthur Marshall on Swipesy Cakewalk and composed an opera in which the protagonist refuses to buy a "bag of luck." That opera is Treemonisha, and, in his most famous form, he composed a piece popularized by the film, The Sting. For 10 points, name this American composer of The Entertainer who pioneered a form of music exemplified in his Maple Leaf Rag, ragtime.

### Willa Cather

Thea Kronborg becomes an opera singer in this author's novel, Song of the Lark. In one of this writer's novels, Lena Lingard becomes a dressmaker and has a brief affair with Jim Burden, a childhood friend of the title girl from Black Hawk. She wrote another novel where Carl Linstrum returns to Nebraska after living in Alaska and eventually decides to marry Alexandra Bergson. For 10 points, name this author of My Ántonia and O Pioneers!

### insulin

Production of this hormone oscillates with a period of 3-6 minutes, and Frederick Sanger earned his first Nobel Prize for sequencing it. Its uptake stimulates synthesis of fatty acids and glycogen, and it is produced in beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. This peptide hormone which stimulates glucose uptake acts in opposition to glucagon, another pancreatic hormone. For 10 points, name this hormone that is deficient in type I diabetes.

### Warren Gamaliel Harding

This president signed in the Fordney-McCumber Tariff and called for the Washington Naval Conference. A large scandal in his administration involved Harry Sinclair and Edward Doheny, who got a lease to the Elk Hills oil field from Interior Secretary Albert Fall. He received much of the first-ever female vote promising a "Return to Normalcy." Shamed by the Teapot Dome scandal, for 10 points, name this man who died in office in 1923, the 29th US president.

### webcomics

One of these begins with the story of "Paul who is a ghost." Another that frequently references Canadian history is written by Kate Beaton. In addition to Pictures for Sad Children and Hark A Vagrant, one of these features Marten, Faye, and Hannelore, while another stars Utahraptor, Dromiceiomimus, and T-Rex and always has the same sequence of panels. For 10 points, identify these internet-based media including Questionable Content, Penny Arcade, and xkcd.

### Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (prompt on Castro)

This figure was imprisoned on the Isle of Pines before going into exile in Mexico, returning home on the yacht Granma. After failing to seize Moncada barracks, his "History will absolve me" speech helped organize the 26th of July movement to depose Fulcengio Batista, after which he resisted the Bay of Pigs invasion along with his brother Raúl. For 10 points, name this leader who, with Che Guevara, established a long-standing Communist government in Cuba.

### Brave New World

In this novel, Linda has an affair with Popé, while Bokanovsky's process separates people into castes Alpha through Epsilon. Mustapha Mond exiles Helmholtz to the Falkland Islands in this novel set in the year Our Ford 632, while Bernard Marx brings a character to London who commits suicide after a soma orgy. For 10 points, identify this dystopian novel in which John the Savage appears, written by Aldous Huxley.

### Saint Joan of Arc (accept Jeanne d'Arc; prompt on partial answer)

This military leader assisted General La Hire at the Battle of Patay after joining John II of Alençon in victory at Beaugency. Captured by Philip the Good of Burgundy, this leader, told by King Charles VII to fight at Reims, had previously made a camp at Blois before by lifting the siege of Orléans. This future saint was tried in Rouen and burned at the stake by the British at age 19. For 10 points, name this woman who led French forces during the Hundred Years' War.

### nitrogen

This element appears in the ion whose sodium compound drives the explosion of airbags, azide. In organic compounds, this element usually has one lone pair and forms three bonds, while it also exists as a diatomic molecule with a triple bond. A compound of this element and hydrogen is used in fertilizer and made in the Haber-Bosch process; that compound is ammonia. For 10 points, name this element to the left of oxygen on the periodic table, with atomic symbol N.

### Ragnarok

During it the ship Naglfar, made of dead peoples' nails, sets sail, and this event is preceded by three consecutive winters. The guardian of the Rainbow Bridge blows his horn at its start, and that bridge breaks during it. Vali and his half-brother Vidarr will survive this event after they avenge Odin's death at the hands of Fenrir. Brought on by Loki's escape, for 10 points, name this foretold Doom of the Gods, a disastrous event in Norse mythology.

### Frank Lloyd Wright

This architect worked at his Taliesin studio and designed the Robie House in his Oak Park studio to exemplify his Prairie Style. Another one of his buildings uses cantilevered balconies over Bear Run. One of this man's buildings was designed for viewers to take an elevator up and a spiraling ramp down; that building looks like a white inverted ziggurat and is the Guggenheim Museum. For ten points, name this famed American architect of Fallingwater.

### superconductors [accept word forms such as superconductivity]

These objects repel magnetic fields in the Meissner effect; the way in which the Meissner effect breaks down in them classifies them as Type I or Type II. A theory about them suggests that they function because of interacting phonons and Cooper pairs, which are pairs of free electrons. YBCO is an example of a "high-temperature" one. For 10 points, name these materials that exhibit zero electrical resistance at very low temperatures.

### First Council of Nicaea [do not accept Nicene or Nicene creed]

This meeting settled on the Homoiousian compromise, and during it Eusebius of Nicomedia defended a man who Saint Nicholas slapped. This council set the date of Easter and denounced a belief claiming that Jesus was a part of the Father, called Arianism. Its namesake document can include the "filioque" or "and from the son" clause. Convened in 325 CE, for 10 points, name this first church council, which proposed a namesake "creed" for believers.

### Republic of India [accept Bharat Ganarajya]

One empire ruling from this modern-day country was run by the Chola dynasty, while another of its rulers' bloody conquest of Kalinga led him to convert to Buddhism. Besides Ashoka, a Mauryan grandson of Chandragupta, this site of the Salt March was home to the Mughals, and its independence movement included a man advocating satyagraha, or nonviolent resistance. For 10 points, name this nation led to independence from Britain by Mohandes Gandhi.

### The Grapes of Wrath

In chapter 3 of this novel, a young man turns his truck to hit a turtle crossing the road but only manages to flip it over. One character breast-feeds a starving man after Connie Rivers abandoned her. Along with Rose of Sharon, other characters include the preacher Jim Casy and one who is inspired to organize migrant workers, Tom. For 10 points, name this novel about the Joad family's trek to California after the Dust Bowl by John Steinbeck.

### Carpathian Mountains

One sub-range in this mountain range's northern section is the Tatra Mountains. This range's highest point is Gerlach Peak, and it forms the northern, eastern, and southern borders of Transylvania. The Iron Gates gorge on the Danube River separates this range from the Balkan Mountains. For 10 points, name this mountain range in Eastern Europe that runs primarily through Slovakia, Poland, the Ukraine, and Romania.

### Michael Scott

This man wears a Willy Wonka outfit to promote his "golden ticket" idea, and befriends Sasha Flenderson, the daughter of his enemy Toby. One of his employees becomes the youngest vice president in company history, while another runs a forty-acre beet farm; the former is the one-time temp Ryan Howard. For 10 points, name this originator of the phrase "that's what she said," the employer of Dwight Schrute and Jim Halpert, played by Steve Carell on The Office.

### Thomas Robert Malthus

This man responded to an essay called Political Justice, written by William Godwin, and he was the only economist to support the impending Corn Laws in 1814. He influenced Charles Darwin's idea of "struggle for survival", and contrasted the linear increase in agricultural production with a geometrically-increasing birth rate. For 10 points, name this Briton whose Essay on the Principle of Population predicts disaster from untenable growth of the human race.

### liver

In first-trimester fetuses, this organ is the site of erythrocyte production, while in all humans it synthesizes serum albumin and cholesterol and is the site of most glycogen storage. It receives blood from the intestines through the hepatic portal vein and is connected to the gallbladder by the common bile duct. For 10 points, name this vital internal organ that is divided into four lobes, exhibits cirrhosis with chronic alcoholism.

### George Gershwin [prompt on Gershwin]

This composer wrote a tone poem inspired by a visit to Havana, his Cuban Overture. Another of this man's pieces begins with a clarinet glissando. "It Ain't Necessarily So" and "Summertime" are numbers from this composer's opera set in Catfish Row, Porgy and Bess. For 10 points, identify this brother of Ira and composer of An American in Paris and Rhapsody in Blue.

### Peter the Great [accept Peter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov]

This leader went on the Great Embassy with his diplomats, and faced revolt from a group of guards supporting his brother Ivan V, the streltsy. This man's forces won at Poltava, beating Charles XII of Sweden in the Great Northern War. He forced nobles to shave their beards, simplified the Cyrillic alphabet, and moved the capital to a namesake port as part of reforms to Westernize his nation. For 10 points, identify this modernizer of Russia, a "Great" czar.

### John Keats

In one of this writer's poems, he questioned why a knight was "alone and palely loitering?" and repeated the line "And no birds sing," in a poem that notes that the title creature "was not born for death." This poet of "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" and "Ode to a Nightingale" penned the line "beauty is truth, truth beauty, that is all / Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know" in another poem. For 10 points, identify this English Romantic poet and author of "Ode on a Grecian Urn."

### Jamestown

Baron De la Warr's supplies saved this place from its "starving time." The Godspeed, Discovery, and Susan Constant brought the first people to it. Set aflame during Bacon's Rebellion, this triangle-shaped colony faced attacks from the Powhatan Confederacy, while John Rolfe's tobacco and John Smith's leadership both helped it thrive. For 10 points, name this colony in present-day Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the US.

### Anton Chekhov

In one work by this author, the title character falls in love with Yelena Serebryakov. In addition to Uncle Vanya, he wrote a play in which Nina marries Trigorin and Konstantin Treplyov commits suicide after shooting the title bird. In another of his plays, Varya hurls a pair of keys to the floor after Lopakhin maliciously buys Madame Ranevsky's estate. For 10 points, name this playwright of The Seagull and The Cherry Orchard.

### Rene Descartes [accept Renatus Cartesius]

This thinker finished 21 of 36 planned Rules for the Direction of Mind, and questioned the definition of a melting substance in his wax argument. He also proposed an evil being that deceived his sensory perception and tutored Christina of Sweden. The namesake of a mind-body dualism, for 10 points, name this author of Meditations on First Philosophy and Discourse on Method, a French rationalist who invented coordinate graphing and said "I think, therefore I am."

### Crimean War

This war's causes included dispute over exclusive French control of sites in the Holy Land, and during it, wounded soldiers in the Selimye barracks got treatment from Florence Nightingale. It included the Siege of Sevastopol, a "thin red line," and an action taken by Lord Cardigan at the Battle of Balaclava, the charge of the Light Brigade. For 10 points, name this 19th-century war in which Britain, France, and the Ottomans fought Russia on the namesake Ukrainian peninsula.

### quartz

This mineral is at the bottom of Bowen's reaction series, and its piezoelectric properties make it useful as a component of crystal oscillators. Common varieties of this second most common mineral in Earth's crust include citrine, amethyst, and onyx. This mineral is the largest component of granite and is primarily composed of silicon dioxide. For 10 points, name this mineral with a Mohs hardness of 7.

### Mao Zedong [accept Mao Tse-Tung or Chairman Mao; don't accept or prompt on Zedong or Tse-Tung]

His wife was part of the Gang of Four, and he supported, then suppressed, the Hundred Flowers campaign. He encouraged a phase in which village furnaces produced low-quality steel and another in which the "Four Olds" were attacked by Red Guards. He retreated on the Long March from Chiang Kai-Shek. The initiator of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, and author of the Little Red Book, for 10 points, name the first Chairman of Communist China.

### Thomas Hardy

One of this author's novels is set in Egdon Heath and describes the tragic love of Eustachia Vye and Clym Yeobright. This author of The Return of the Native wrote of a man who sells his wife and daughter to a sailor. In addition to writing about Michael Henchard, this author wrote of a woman who murders Alec and loves Angel Clare. For 10 points, name this British author of The Mayor of Casterbridge and Tess of the d'Urbervilles.

### Berlin [accept East Berlin until "Treaty" is read]

The June 17 uprising began in this city, and one conference held in this city revised the Treaty of San Stefano after the Balkan Wars. Separated into sectors by the London Protocol, this city home to Checkpoint Charlie received thousands of tons of supplies during its 1948 airlift, while John F. Kennedy claimed he was "a [citizen of it] too" during a speech here. For 10 points, name this city once home to a concrete wall between West and East, the capital of Germany.

### 1984

Charrington betrays the protagonist of this work by revealing his affair with a girl he had earlier seen wearing a red sash. The protagonist's fear of rats is exploited in Room 101 by O'Brien to get him to disavow his love for Julia. The protagonist of this work works at the Ministry of Truth, and this work features the fictional language of Newspeak. For 10 points, name this dystopian work about Winston Smith's life under Big Brother, a novel by George Orwell.

This nation is home to the volcano Mount Garibaldi and its highest point is at Mount Logan. This country's longest river, which flows into the Beaufort Sea, is the Mackenzie. In 1999, the territory of Nunavut, which includes Baffin Island, was created in this country's northern region. Its provincial capitals include Regina and Halifax, and it contains the Hudson Bay. For 10 points, name this country with capital at Ottawa, the northern neighbor of the US.

### Lil Wayne [prompt on Dwayne Carter]

This artist notes that he let one girl "lick the wrapper." In one song featuring Rick Ross, this artist claims he can turn security guards into track stars. This creator of songs like "The Sky is the Limit" and "I'm Me" has been sighted coming "straight up out the water wit [his] Marc Jacobs goggles." For 10 points, name this hip-hop sensation of Cash Money Records who performs songs like "Lollipop," "Stuntin' Like My Daddy" and "Pop Bottles."

This academic contrasted the uniformly aggressive Mundugumor with the peaceful Arapesh and the Tchambuli, a female-dominated tribe, in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. Another study of hers, criticized by Derek Freeman, described "sleep-crawling" and interviewed 68 young women to dispute that sexual repression is universal in adolescents. For 10 points, name this student of Boas, a female anthropologist who wrote Coming of Age in Samoa.

### sine

In Euler's formula, this function is multiplied by i. This function's namesake wave is integral to Fourier analysis and represents constant, periodic oscillations. On the unit circle, this function is positive in the first and second quadrants. Additionally, this function is used to represent the y-value of a unit circle arc. For 10 points, identify this trigonometric function that is the inverse of cosecant and, for a right triangle, gives the ratio of the opposite side over the hypotenuse.

In one work, this man described potato-eaters as stronger and more beautiful than bread-eaters, explained how monopolies lead to increased prices, and marveled at the division of labor in an efficient pin factory. He wrote of compatible self-interest and ethics in The Theory of Moral Sentiments, where he introduced the idea of a self-correcting "invisible hand" in markets. For 10 points, name this Scottish founder of classical economics, the author of The Wealth of Nations.

### Eugene Delacroix

In one work by this artist, a king lounges on his bed as his guards slay his horses and some naked ladies. In addition to The Death of Sardanapalus, this artist depicted burning towns in the background of a work showing an ottoman on horseback slaying scantily clad Greeks, Massacre at Chios. For ten points, name this artist who may be most famous for a painting containing a young boy with two pistols following a woman carrying the French flag, Liberty Leading the People.

### Odysseus [prompt "Ulysses"]

This man fought the Cicones in Ismara, and a scar on his thigh from a boar hunt allowed him to be recognized by his servant Eurycleia. Some of his followers stayed with the Lotus-Eaters, and one man in his crew died by falling from Circe's hut. Held for eight years on the island of Calypso after blinding the cyclops Polyphemus, for 10 points, name this husband of Penelope and father of Telemachus, an Ithacan king who returns home in his namesake Homeric epic.

### Emily Dickinson

This author wrote "How dreary to be somebody!" in "I'm Nobody! Who are you?" Another poem describes the title event "Between the light and me", after which she "could not see to see". In one poem by this author, the narrator and the title character "passed the fields of grazing grain" and after he "kindly stopped for" the narrator. For 10 points, name this Belle of Amherst who wrote "I heard a fly buzz when I died" and "Because I could not stop for Death."

### index of refraction [or refractive index]

This value, the square root of the product of the relative permeability and relative permittivity, is negative in metamaterials, and multiple values for it appear in objects exhibiting birefringence. The angles of incidence for two adjacent objects with different values of this are calculated by Snell's law. For 10 points, name this dimensionless quantity measuring the ratio of the speed of light in a medium to that in a vacuum.

### Huguenots [accept Reformed Church of France]

The dragonnades police intimidated this group, and members of it in Chambon-sur-Lignon saved thousands of Jews from the Nazi SS. Their churches were ordered destroyed by Louis XIV in Fontainebleau, and thousands were massacred by order of Catherine de Medici on Saint Bartholomew's Day in 1572. This group's religious freedom was guaranteed in 1598 by Henry IV's Edict of Nantes. For 10 points, identify this denomination of French Calvinist Protestants.

### Vodou [accept Voodoo or Vodun or Vaudou]

Members of this faith form houses known as sosyete, and its holy men are sometimes called houngan. It believes in an ancestral homeland of Ginen, worships the supreme being Bondye, and originates in Yoruban myth. The Ogunye and Ezili are families of this religion's spirits, or loa, which include Papa Legba and Baron Samedi. For 10 points, name this syncretic religion practiced in Louisiana and Haiti, whose rarer practices might involve zombies or pin-filled dolls.

### Abraham Lincoln

This man gave the Cooper Union and Peoria Speeches, and one of his opponents proposed the Freeport Doctrine after he spoke there. He also gave a speech claiming that "a house divided against itself cannot stand." Another of his addresses tells of a "government of the people, by the people, for the people" that dead soldiers helped fight for. For 10 points, name this President assassinated in Ford's Theatre, who issued the Gettysburg Address during the Civil War.

### lysosomes

Defects in these structures cause Gaucher's [go-SHAYZ] disease, and another disease affecting them causes the buildup of GM2 gangliosides due to misshapen hexosaminidase [hex-oh-sah-MIN-i-dayz] A. These organelles affected by Tay-Sachs disease use proton pumps to maintain an internal pH of 4.8 and fuse with vacuoles to aid digestion. For 10 points, name these organelles, containing hydrolases and proteases, which break down cellular waste.

### Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie

One of this author's novels begins with a plane exploding over the English Channel. Another novel by this author has a singer known as "Brass Monkey" and features two characters born exactly when India was partitioned, Saleem Sinai and Shiva. Gibreel Farishta appears in a novel by this author which caused Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to issue a fatwa against him. For 10 points, name this author of Midnight's Children and The Satanic Verses.

### birds [accept Aves]

These animals have a vocal organ called the syrinx, and their lymphatic system includes the Bursa of Fabricus. Another important part of their bodies comes in pennaceous and down varieties. Discovered in Solnhofen, Germany, the extinct Archaeopteryx is believed to be the most primitive species of these due to the fact that it had feathers. For 10 points, name this modern class of vertebrates, examples of which include the flightless emu and flying eagles.

### Julius Caesar

This man prosecuted Dolabella when he returned home after his marriage to Cornelia forced him to flee during Sulla's dictatorship. At Alesia, this man defeated Vercingetorix, and at the Battle of Pharsalus he defeated Pompey, who, with Crassus and this man, had been in the first triumvirate. The conqueror of Gaul, for 10 points, name this Roman who crossed the Rubicon after saying "the die is cast", and was assassinated on the Ides of March by Brutus in 44 B.C.E.

### Ludwig van Beethoven's 9th Symphony or "Choral" Symphony

The third movement of this work features a notable solo for the fourth horn while the second scherzo movement contains a D major trio featuring trombones. The final movement begins with the cellos and basses playing recitatives that refer to the earlier movements. Scored in D minor, this piece concludes with a chorus singing lines from Schiller's "Ode to Joy." For 10 points, identify this final symphony of Beethoven.

### bone [accept osseous tissue before "these organs;" prompt afterwards]

Cortical and cancellous tissues compose these organs, and the fusion of their epiphysis and diaphysis signals the end of growth in humans. Haversian canals perforate the compact form of them, and they contain large amounts of hydroxylapatite. Their tissue is produced by osteoblasts and strengthened by the consumption of calcium. For 10 points, name these marrow-containing supportive organs of the skeletal system, of which the adult body contains 206.

### Thomas Mann

In one work by this man, Serenus Zeitblom narrates the life of Adrian Leverkuhn. Though not Marlowe, this author of Doktor Faustus also wrote a novel in which Gustav von Aschenbach becomes obsessed with the Polish boy Tadzio. The setting of another of his novels is a sanatorium inhabited by such characters as Settembrini, Claudia Chauchat, and Hans Castorp. For 10 points, name this German author of Death in Venice and The Magic Mountain.

### The Tin Drum [or Der Blechtrommel]

Its protagonist falls in love with Sister Dorothea and can shatter glass with his voice. Name this novel about Oskar Matzerath, who receives the title object on his third birthday and then vows to stop growing.

### Gunter Wilhelm Grass

This author of Crabwalk included The Tin Drum and Cat and Mouse in his Danzig Trilogy.

### Federal Republic of Germany [or Bundesrepublik Deutschland; accept West Germany or Westdeutschland; do not accept "East Germany"]

Grass hails from this nation, also the home of Heinrich Böll and a "rubble literature" movement which developed from its central role in World War II. Goethe was from a predecessor of this country.

### Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Answer some questions about a German philosopher. This German philosopher of The Science of Logic described the spirit of the age, or zeitgeist, in The Phenomenology of Mind.

### law of dialectical reasoning

Hegel wrote about this method of change, in which conflict between a thesis and its antithesis yields a synthesis with elements of both.

### Karl Marx

This follower of Hegel outlined his "dialectical materialism" in Das Kapital and, with Friedrich Engels, co-authored The Communist Manifesto.

### "The Charge of the Light Brigade"

This poem follows six hundred men who journey "half a league" "in the valley of Death." Identify this poem about a disastrous expedition in the Crimean War.

### "Ulysses"

The final line of this Tennyson poem instructs the reader "to strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield" and follows the journey of an Ithacan king.

### viscosity

When it is zero, the Navier-Stokes equations reduce to the Euler equation. Name this quantity, defined as a fluid's resistance to flow. It is often measured in poise [PWAHZ].

### superfluids [accept word forms like superfluidity]

Substances of this type exhibit zero viscosity, allowing them to climb the walls of a container by forming a Rollin film. They can exist at temperatures below the lambda point.

### helium [accept He]

This element has three and four isotopes that can form superfluids. Its nucleus is an alpha particle and it is the lightest noble gas.

### haiku

One famous one of these was about a frog that jumped into an ancient pond in order to create a splash. Name this form of poetry consisting of a total of 17 syllables.

### Matsuo Basho

This author of the aforementioned haiku about a frog making a splash also wrote a poetic travel diary, his work The Narrow Road to the Deep North.

### Japan

Basho is from this country in which the haiku originated. Other writers from this nation include Kenzaburo Oe [OH-ay] and Yasunari Kawabata.

### Hannibal

This man's tactics won him decisive victories at Cannae and Lake Trasimene. Name this Carthaginian general who invaded the Italian peninsula after marching his war elephants across the Alps.

### Battle of Zama

Hannibal's last battle was this engagement near Carthage, in which he was defeated by Scipio Africanus. At it, Roman and Numidian cavalry scattered Hannibal's lines.

### Punic Wars

The Battle of Zama ended the second of these wars between Rome and its Mediterranean rival Carthage.

### Navajos

Its members refer to themselves as Diné, or "the people," and their land includes Canyon de Chelly and cliff dwellings of their enemy ancestors, the Anasazi. Name this Native American tribe of the Four Corners area, known for turquoise beadwork.

### code talkers

Navajo soldiers were among those filling this role in World War II. They were highly successful because their grammar system was so complex.

### Tecumseh

This leader of another Indian tribe, the Shawnee, was the brother of Tenskwatawa, "The Prophet," and was killed in 1814 at the Battle of the Thames.

This city located on the Baltic Sea is home to the statue of the Bronze Horseman. It was the capital of the Russian Empire for over two centuries.

This city on the Golden Horn Bay near the Russian borders with China and North Korea is located at the eastern terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railroad.

### demand curve

This curve's slope is negative for most goods, but is positive for Veblen or Giffen goods. Name this economic curve which plots quantity of a product against price. It helps find the equilibrium price when it intersects with the supply curve.

### Laffer curve

This curve, with minima at 0 and 100 percent, plots tax revenue as a function of tax rate which decreases at high enough values. Its namesake uses it to justify supply-side economics.

### production-possibilities frontier [accept production-possibilities curve; accept PPF or PPC; accept product transformation curve]

This curve plots all rates at which two separate goods can be made with limited resources to make both. It is often used to explain opportunity cost in tradeoffs such as "guns versus butter."

### Arizona

Name some things related to recent controversy over illegal immigration. This state's legislature enacted legislation in April 2010 requiring state police to enforce federal immigration law, leading to allegations that it would result in racial profiling.

### Jan Brewer

The legislation requiring state police to enforce federal immigration law was signed by this Republican governor of Arizona. She succeeded Democrat Janet Napolitano in 2009.

### Eric Holder

This U.S. Attorney General filed a lawsuit in July 2010 alleging that the Arizona law interfered with federal immigration responsibilities.

### Thanatopsis

This poem notes that one can "lose thyself in the continuous woods." Name this poem that starts "To him who in the love of Nature holds/Communion with her visible forms," a meditation upon death by William Cullen Bryant.

### Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.

This other Romantic poet wrote about the title "ship of pearl" in his poem "The Chambered Nautilus," and about a certain ship in "Old Ironsides" as well as "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table."

### Lord Byron [accept George Gordon Byron]

This English Romantic author wrote the short poem "She Walks in Beauty" and the unfinished epic poem "Don Juan." He notably died at Missolonghi during the Greek War of Independence.

### Habsburgs [or Hapsburgs]

Genetic defects such as severe underbite and large chins recurred in this family due to inbreeding. Name this central European noble family which included Maximilian I, Marie Antoinette, Charles V, and Maria Theresa.

### Vienna [accept Wien]

Habsburgs ruled from this capital city until 1918. The Ottomans failed to capture it twice, and Prince Metternich chaired a Congress here during Napoleon's first exile.

### Franz Joseph [accept Ferenc Jozsef]

This penultimate Habsburg Emperor of Austria elevated Hungary to Dual Monarchy status in the Ausgleich agreement 47 years before his nephew Franz Ferdinand was shot.

### colligative properties

Equations describing these properties sometimes include a van't Hoff factor to account for the behavior of electrolytes. Give this term for chemical properties which depend only on the number of particles in a solution, not on the character of the particles themselves.

### freezing point [accept melting point]

One colligative property is the lowering of this temperature, which is the point at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid.

### hydrogen bonds [accept word forms of "bond" like "bonding"]

Water has a high freezing point because of these forces, which occur between their namesake element and electronegative atoms including oxygen, fluorine, and nitrogen.

### Thor [accept Donner or Donar]

His chariot is drawn by goats, and this father of Modi and Magni later married the golden-haired Sif. Name this wielder of the hammer Mjolnir, the Norse god of thunder.

### Jormungandr [or the Midgard Serpent; prompt "World Serpent"]

Thor will kill and be killed by this monstrous creature at Ragnarok. It is so long that it encircles the entire earth.

### Loki

This half-giant father of Hel and Fenrir fathered the Midgard Serpent with the giantess Angrboda. He is currently chained up for his role in the killing of Baldur.

### H-R diagram [or Hertzsprung-Russell diagram]

In the early 20th century, two scientists plotted stars on a chart with absolute magnitude on one axis and spectral class on the other. Name that diagram, which is used in astronomy to describe the evolution of stars.

### main sequence

Forming a diagonal from the upper left to lower right of the H-R diagram, this group contains 90% of all stars. Its members have luminosities proportional to their masses.

### giant stars [or giants]

These stars, located above the main sequence on an H-R diagram, have a significantly larger radius than other stars of their mass. Our sun will eventually become a red one of these.

### Hundred Years' War

This war included the Treaty of Troyes and a naval battle at Sluys. Name this era of conflict between Britain and France from about 1340 to 1453.

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