Chem 1 Final Vocab

148 terms by pribak 

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Matter

that which has mass and occupies space

Crystal lattice

a repeating three-dimensional pattern of ions

Translational motion

Motion from one point to another which does not involve repeatedly passing the same point in space

Rotational motion

Motion when an object moves aroud its centre of mass

Vibrational motion

atoms in the molecule move periodically toward and away from one another

Fluid

any substance that can flow

Compressible

can be made to occupy a smaller volume

Density

the amount of matter in a given space, mass/volume

Temperature

the average kinetic energy of the individual particles

Maxwell-Boltzman distribution

An increase in temp spreads out the distribution and the mean speed shifts upward

Absolute Zero

The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.

Kelvin

SI unit for temperature

Condensation

gas to liquid

Evaporation

Liquid to Gas, the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas

Vaporization

liquid to gas

Sublimation

solid to gas

Deposition

gas to solid

Endothermic

describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment

Exothermic

chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat

Kinetic Energy

the energy an object has due to its motion

Potential energy

energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement

Phase Change

the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another

Physical Change

a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance

Boiling point

The temperature at which a liquid boils

Melting/Freezing point

the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a solid

Heating/cooling curve

graph showing the increase of temp and energy for a substance

Pure substance

a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties

Mixture

a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)

Scientific law

a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments

Scientific Theory

a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations

Pressure

the force applied to a unit area of surface

Torr(mmHg)

Ways to measure pressure. One atmosphere = 760 torr or mmHg

Atmosphere

A type of unit to measure pressure

Directly proportional

a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph is a straight line passing through the point (0,0)

Inversely proportional

a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose product is constant

Boyle's Law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases, P1V1=P2V2

Charles' Law

the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases, V1/T1=V2/T2

Kinetic Theory of Gasses

The model states that the movement of molecules in a gas is random and that no energy is lost when they collide with each other or their surroundings.

Elastic collisions

encounters between gas particles in which kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another

Cathode Ray

a beam of electrons emitted by the cathode of an electrical discharge tube

Subatomic Particles

protons, neutrons, and electrons

Atomic Number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Mass Number

the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Atomic Mass

total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units

Isotope

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

Frequency

The number of waves that have passed through a specific point in a certain amount of time units.

Wavelength

The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Photon

a tiny particle or packet of light energy

Electromagnetic Spectrum

arrangement of electromagnetic radiation--including radio waves, visible light from the Sun, gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, and microwaves--according to their wavelengths

Radiation

energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles

Quantization

process of measuring the amplitude or energy of each sample at that point in the waveform-also increases dynamic range

Line Emission Spectra

when light from excited atoms of an element is passed through a prism, distinct colored lines are produced which can be used to identify the element.

Energy Level

a region of an atom in which electrons of the same energy are likely to be found

Sublevel

One part of a level, each of which can hold different numbers of electrons

Orbital

a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons

Electron Configuration

the ways in which electrons are arranged in various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms

Uncertainty Principle

The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers

Absorption

The Process of when and atom takes in Light and converts it into energy. Opposite of Reflection

Emission

something sent out; putting into circulation

J.J Thomson's Model

Thomson's model described the atom as a positively charged sphere, in which negatively charged particles were scattered. (Like raisins in bread pudding.)

Dalton's Model

described atoms as the smallest particle of matter ; indivisible; developed the Atomic Theory

Rutherford's Model

atoms possitively charged particles were contained in the nucleus, the negatively charged electrons were scattered outside the nucleus around the edge

Bohr Model

model of the atom in which electrons move rapidly around the nucleus in paths called orbits

Quantum Mechanical Model

determines the allowed energies an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electron in various locations around the nucleus

Ground State

the lowest energy state of an atom

Excited State

a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state

Excitation

The process of an electron jumping to a higher energy level in its atom.

Relaxation

The process of an electron coming back to its original energy level in its atom.

Ion

atom that has a positive or negative charge

Cation

a positively charged ion

Anion

a negatively charged ion

Ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion

Crystal Lattice

a 3-dimensional geometric arrangement of the atoms or molecules or ions composing a crystal

Atomic Radius

one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together

Ionization Energy

the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom

Ionic Radius

Distance from the center of an ion's nucleus to its outermost electron

Ionic compound

a compound that consists of positive and negative ions

Binary Compound

chemical compound composed of only two elements

Formula Unit

the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound

Octet rule

States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons

isoelectronic

having the same number of electrons

Coulomb's Law

electric force between charged objects depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.

Shielding

The more electrons there are to hold on to, the more the strength of the nucleus gets diffused

Mole

the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

Avogadro's Number

number of representative particles in a mole, 6.02 X 10^23

Molar Mass

the mass of one mole of a pure substance

Covalent Bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

Lone pair

Pair of electrons associated with one atom in a molecule and not involved in bonding.

Molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

Polyatomic Ion

a charged group of covalently bonded atoms

Covalent Compound

a chemical compound formed by the sharing of electrons

Lewis Structure

a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds.

VSEPR model

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model, which is based on an arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared pairs of electrons around the central atom

Electron Geometry

the arrangement of electron domains about the central atom

Electron regions

electron cloud, the area of possibilities in which the electrons could be in a general region.

Bond Angle

the angle formed by two bonds to the same atoms

Electronegativity

a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons

Polar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally

non-polar covalent bond

A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge

Bond Dipole

an indicator in a Lewis structure that shows which element is more electronegative

Lone Pair Dipole

no bond, just a lone pair, unshared

Symmetric Dipoles

there are equal forces on each side that cancel each other out, no net dipole because they fully cancel

Net dipole

the overall direction of partial negative charge in a molecule

Molecular Polarity

the uneven distribution of molecular charge

Polar Molecule

molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end

Intermolecular Forces

forces of attraction between molecules. The following types are: London Dispersion Forces, Dipole-Dipole Forces, and Hydrogen Bonds

Dipole-Dipole Forces

attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules

Hydrogen Bonds

attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom

London Dispersion Forces

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

Temporary Dipole

An atom or molecule in which the spatial center of positive charge is momentarily different from the center of negative charge.

Percent Composition

the percent by mass of each element in a compound

Empirical Formula

a formula showing the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound

Solution

A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

Solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

Solvent

the substance in which the solute dissolves

Dissolving

the process of going into solution

Ion-Dipole Bonding

Attraction between an ion and a dipolar molecule

Homogeneous Mixture

a mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture

Heterogeneous Mixture

a mixture in which different materials can be distinguished easily

Saturated

being the most concentrated solution possible at a given temperature

Unsaturated

solution in which it is possible for more solute to be dissolved

Concentrated

a solution containing relatively large amounts of solute

Dilute

make (a liquid) less concentrated; reduce in strength; Ex. dilute the influence of the president

Soluble

capable of being dissolved

Insoluble

not able to dissolve

Electrical Conductivity

how well a substance allows electricity to flow through it.

Hydration Energy

the attraction between ions and water in the solution; the change in energy when gaseous ions dissolve in water

Lattice Energy

the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions

Entropy

a measure of the disorder of a system

Dynamic Equilibrium

result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration

Concentration

the strength of a solution

Molarity

concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent

Dilution

the process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution

Volumetric Flask

used to make solutions of known concentration, accurate liq. vol. measurement

Graduated Pipet

Used to deliver precise volumes of liquids

Organic Molecule

carbon-based molecule

Structural Formula

an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule

Line-Angle Drawing

zig zag format of how many bonds are in the molecule
double lines for double bonds etc. and draw in the bond angles for each one

HydroCarbon

an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

Functional Group

the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds

Alcohol

-ol

Amine

-Amine, -Amino, -ine

Carboxylic Acid

-(o)ic Acid

Ester

-Oate

Amide

-Amide

Metallic Bonding

the chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons

Covalent Network

this solid consists of atoms held together throughout the entire sample of material in large networks or chains by covalent bonds, and has a high melting point

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