Chapter 31: Fungi

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Chapter 31 of "Biology" by Campbell and Reece, 9th (Global) Edition

yeast

Single-celled fungus that reproduces asexually by binary fission or by the pinching of small buds off a parent cell. Some species exhibit cell fusion between different mating types.

hypha (plural, hyphae)

One of many connected filaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus.

chitin

A structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.

mycelium

The densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus.

septum (plural, septa)

One of the cross-walls that divide a fungal hypha into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell.

coenocytic fungus

A fungus that lacks septa and hence whose body is made up of a continuous cytoplasmic mass that may contain hundreds or thousands of nuclei.

haustorium (plural, haustoria)

In certain symbiotic fungi, a specialized hypha that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms.

mycorrhiza (plural, mycorrhizae)

A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungus.

ectomycorrhizal fungus

A symbiotic fungus that forms sheaths of hyphae over the surface of plant roots and also grows into extracellular spaces of the root cortex.

arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

A symbiotic fungus whose hyphae grow through the cell wall of plant roots and extend into the root cell (enclosed in tubes formed by invagination of the root cell plasma membrane).

spore

(1) In the life cycle of a plant or algae undergoing alternation of generations, a haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meiosis. A spore can divide by mitosis to develop into a multicellular haploid individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell. (2) In fungi, a haploid cell, produced either sexually or asexually, that produces a mycelium after germination.

pheromone

In animals and fungi, a small molecule released into the environment that functions in communication between members of the same species. In animals, it acts much like a hormone in influencing physiology and behavior.

plasmogamy

In fungi, the fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two individuals; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduction, followed later by karyogamy.

heterokaryon

A fungal mycelium that contains two or more haploid nuclei per cell.

dikaryotic

Referring to a fungal mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent.

karyogamy

In fungi, the fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduction, preceded by plasmogamy.

mold

Informal term for a fungus that grows as a filamentous fungus, producing haploid spores by mitosis and forming a visible mycelium.

deuteromycete

Traditional classification for a fungus with no known sexual stage.

opisthokont

Member of the diverse clade Opisthokonta, organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including fungi, animals, and certain protists.

nucleariid

Member of a group of unicellular, amoeboid protists that are more closely related to fungi than they are to other protists.

chytrid

Member of the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota, mostly aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores that represent an early-diverging fungal lineage.

zoospore

Flagellated spore found in chytrid fungi and some protists.

zygomycete

Member of the fungal phylum Zygomycota, characterized by the formation of a sturdy structure called a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction.

zygosporangium

In zygomycete fungi, a sturdy multinucleate structure in which karyogamy and meiosis occur.

glomeromycete

Member of the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, characterized by a distinct branching form of mycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizae.

ascomycete

Member of the fungal phylum Ascomycota, commonly called sac fungus. The name comes from the saclike structure in which the spores develop.

ascus (plural, asci)

A saclike spore capsule located at the tip of a dikaryotic hypha of a sac fungus.

ascocarp

The fruiting body of a sac fungus (ascomycete).

conidium (plural, conidia)

A haploid spore produced at the tip of a specialized hypha in ascomycetes during asexual reproduction.

basidiomycete

Member of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota, commonly called club fungus. The name comes from the club-like shape of the basidium.

basidium (plural, basidia)

A reproductive appendage that produces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms (club fungi).

basidiocarp

Elaborate fruiting body of a dikaryotic mycelium of a club fungus.

endophyte

A fungus that lives inside a leaf or other plant part without causing harm to the plant.

lichen

The mutualistic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic algae or cyanobacterium.

soredium (plural, soredia)

In lichens, a small cluster of fungal hyphae with embedded algae.

mycosis

General term for a fungal infection.

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