Single-celled fungus that reproduces asexually by binary fission or by the pinching of small buds off a parent cell. Some species exhibit cell fusion between different mating types.
hypha (plural, hyphae)
One of many connected filaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus.
A structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.
The densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus.
septum (plural, septa)
One of the cross-walls that divide a fungal hypha into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell.
A fungus that lacks septa and hence whose body is made up of a continuous cytoplasmic mass that may contain hundreds or thousands of nuclei.
haustorium (plural, haustoria)
In certain symbiotic fungi, a specialized hypha that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms.
mycorrhiza (plural, mycorrhizae)
A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungus.
A symbiotic fungus that forms sheaths of hyphae over the surface of plant roots and also grows into extracellular spaces of the root cortex.
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus
A symbiotic fungus whose hyphae grow through the cell wall of plant roots and extend into the root cell (enclosed in tubes formed by invagination of the root cell plasma membrane).
(1) In the life cycle of a plant or algae undergoing alternation of generations, a haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meiosis. A spore can divide by mitosis to develop into a multicellular haploid individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell. (2) In fungi, a haploid cell, produced either sexually or asexually, that produces a mycelium after germination.
In animals and fungi, a small molecule released into the environment that functions in communication between members of the same species. In animals, it acts much like a hormone in influencing physiology and behavior.
In fungi, the fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two individuals; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduction, followed later by karyogamy.
A fungal mycelium that contains two or more haploid nuclei per cell.
Referring to a fungal mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent.
In fungi, the fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduction, preceded by plasmogamy.
Informal term for a fungus that grows as a filamentous fungus, producing haploid spores by mitosis and forming a visible mycelium.
Traditional classification for a fungus with no known sexual stage.
Member of the diverse clade Opisthokonta, organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including fungi, animals, and certain protists.
Member of a group of unicellular, amoeboid protists that are more closely related to fungi than they are to other protists.
Member of the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota, mostly aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores that represent an early-diverging fungal lineage.
Flagellated spore found in chytrid fungi and some protists.
Member of the fungal phylum Zygomycota, characterized by the formation of a sturdy structure called a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction.
In zygomycete fungi, a sturdy multinucleate structure in which karyogamy and meiosis occur.
Member of the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, characterized by a distinct branching form of mycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizae.
Member of the fungal phylum Ascomycota, commonly called sac fungus. The name comes from the saclike structure in which the spores develop.
ascus (plural, asci)
A saclike spore capsule located at the tip of a dikaryotic hypha of a sac fungus.
The fruiting body of a sac fungus (ascomycete).
conidium (plural, conidia)
A haploid spore produced at the tip of a specialized hypha in ascomycetes during asexual reproduction.
Member of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota, commonly called club fungus. The name comes from the club-like shape of the basidium.
basidium (plural, basidia)
A reproductive appendage that produces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms (club fungi).
Elaborate fruiting body of a dikaryotic mycelium of a club fungus.
A fungus that lives inside a leaf or other plant part without causing harm to the plant.
The mutualistic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic algae or cyanobacterium.
soredium (plural, soredia)
In lichens, a small cluster of fungal hyphae with embedded algae.
General term for a fungal infection.