Milady's Esthetics Chapter 6 Basics of Chemistry

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Chemistry

The science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of matter and with how matter changes under different conditions.

Organic Chemistry

The study of substances that contain carbon.

Inorganic Chemistry

The branch of chemistry dealing with compounds that do not contain carbon.

Matter

Any substance that occupies space and has mass weight.

Element

The simplest form of matter and cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of identity.

Atoms

The structural units that make up elements.

Molecule

Formed by joining two or more atoms chemically.

Elemental molecules

Contain two or more atoms of the same element that are chemically united.

Compound Molecules

Chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements that are chemically united.

Physical Change

Change in the form of physical properties of a substance without a chemical reaction or formation of a new substance.

Solids

Definite size (volume) and a definite shape.

Liquids

Have a definite size (volume) but not a definite shape

Gases

Do not have a definite size (volume) or a definite shape.

Physical Properties

Those characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.

Chemical Properties

Those characteristics that can be determined only with a chemical reaction and that cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.

Physical Change

A change in the form or physical properties of a substance without the formation of a new substance.

Chemical Change

Change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed having properties different from the original.

Physical Mixtures

Combination of two or more substances united physically, not chemically, without a fixed composition and in any proportion.

Hydrogen

Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas and its lightest element know.

oxygen

The most abundant element found on earth, colorless, odorless, tasteless gas.

Nitrogen

Colorless, gaseous mixture element, makes up about four fifths of the air in our atmosphere found chiefly in the form of ammonia and nitrates.

Air

Gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atmosphere, one part oxygen and four parts ntirogen by volume.

Water

The most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75 percent of the earth's surface and about 65 percent of the human body.

Hydrogen peroxide

A chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen, colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and a slightly acid taste.

PH

Potential hydrogen of a substance is its relative degree of acidity or alkalinity and is measured on a scale of 0 to 14.

Acid mantle

A protective barrier against certain forms of bacteria and microorganisms, may be a factor in the natural skin-shediing and renewal process.

Acid-Alkali Neutralization Reactions

When an acid is mixed with an akali, also called a base, in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water (h2o) and a salt.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions

One of the most common types of chemical reactions, prevalent in all areas of chemistry. When oxygen is added to a substance, the substance is oxidized; for example, rust forms when oxygen is added to iron;

Redox

Acronym for reduction oxidation; chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.

Redox reactions

Oxidation and reduction happening at the same time.

Combustion

The rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.

Antioxidants

Used to stabilize skin care products by preventing or retarding the oxidation that would otherwise cause a product to turn rancid and spoil.

Free Radical

Super oxidizers that cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new free radical in the process.

Oxidize

to combine or cause a substance to combine with oxygen.

Solution

Uniform mixtures of two ro more mutually mixable substance.

Solute

Any substance that is dissolved by a solvent to form a solution.

Solvent

Any substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution.

Miscible

Capable of being mixed with another liquid in any proportion without seperating.

Suspensions

Uniform mixtures of two or more substances.

Emulsions

Suspensions of an unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier.

Surfactants

Used to emulsify oil and water to create an emulsion.

Hydrophiic

Capable of combining or attracting water.

Lipophilic

Having an affinity or attraction to fat and oils.

Oil-in-water emulsions

Droplets of oil are dispersed in water with the aid of an emulsifying agent.

Water-in-oil emulsions

Droplets of water dispersed in an oil.

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