(1829-1886): Elected as vice president in 1880, Arthur became president after Garfield's assassination. He was primarily known for his efforts at civil ser vice reform, culminating in the Pendleton Act.
William Jennings Bryans
(1860-1925): A Democratic congressman from Nebraska who was an outspoken "free silver" advocate. His "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic convention in 1896 won him the party's nomination. The Populists also backed him in a "fusion" ticket with the Democrats. ____'s eloquent advocacy for free silver and farmers' interests earned him millions of devoted followers, but never quite enough to win the presidency, for which he ran three times (1896, 1900, 1908). Later in life, as Secretary of State he led the resistance to American entry into World War I and in 1925, an ardent fundamentalist, he gained fame from some quarters—and great disdain from others—for joining the prosecution of high-school biology teacher John T. Scopes for teaching evolution.
(1837-1908): President from 1885-1889 and again from 1893-1897, _____'s first term was dominated by the issues of military pensions and tariff reforms. He lost the election of 1888, but he ran again and won in 1892. During his second term he faced one of the most serious economic depressions in the nation's history but failed to enact policies to ease the crisis.
James Garfield (1831-1881): Elected to the presidency in 1880
____ served as president for only a few months before being assassinated by Charles Guiteau, who claimed to have killed him because he was denied a job through patronage when ______ was elected. The assassination fueled efforts to reform the spoils system.
(1836-1892): A railroad magnate who was involved in the Black Friday scandal in 1869 and later gained control of many of the nation's largest railroads, including the Union Pacific. He became revered and hated for his ability to manipulate railroad stocks for his personal profit and for his ardent resistance to organized labor.
Ulysses S. Grant
(1822-1885): A Union Army general elected to the presidency in 1868 as a Republican, his eight years in office were marred by corruption and economic depression.
(1811-1872): A New York newspaper editor, ___ ran for President in 1872 under the mantles of the Liberal Republican and Democratic Parties.
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822-1893): The former Republican governor of Ohio, he became President after the contested 1876 election. By 1880 he had lost the support of his party and was not re-nominated for the office.
J. P. Morgan
(1837-1913): A banker who became a national symbol of the power of the banks during the Gilded Age, he helped all the big businesses of the era consolidate their holdings and ultimately bought Carnegie's steel empire for more than $400 million in 1900. He also helped to bail the U.S. government out of a currency crunch in 1895 when he organized a loan to the government of $65 million in gold. In 1902 his Northern Securities Company became one of the first targets of Teddy Roosevelt's trust-busting crusades, but Roosevelt's 1907 decision to allow a steel merger under _____'s watch showed the limits of Roosevelt's efforts.
Thomas B. Reed
(1839-1902): The Republican congressman from Maine who became Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1889, then led the Billion-dollar Congress like a "Czar," making sure that his agenda dictated the business of the legislature.
(1856-1922): A Populist leader who initially advocated interracial political mobilization but later became a symbol of the party's shift to white supremacy.
Alexander Graham Bell
(1847-1922): The inventor of the telephone, patented in 1876.
(1835-1919): A tycoon who came to dominate the burgeoning steel industry. His company, later named United States Steel, was the biggest corporation in United States history in 1901. After he retired, he donated most of his fortune to public libraries, universities, arts organizations, and other charitable causes.
Thomas Alva Edison
(1847-1931): The inventor of, among other things, the electric light bulb, the phonograph, the mimeograph, the moving picture, and a machine capable of taking X-rays. Ultimately he held more than 1,000 patents for his inventions.
(1850-1924): The president of the American Federation of Labor nearly every year from its founding in 1886 until his death in 1924. ____ was no foe of capitalism but wanted employers to offer workers a fair deal by paying high wages and providing job security.
John D. Rockefeller
(1839-1937): The founder of the Standard Oil Company, he developed the technique of horizontal integration and compelled other oil companies to join the Standard Oil "trust." He became the richest person in the world and the U.S.'s first billionaire. He later became known for his philanthropic support of universities and medical research.
(1794-1877): A railroad magnate who made millions in steam-boating before beginning a business consolidating railroads and eliminating competition in the industry.
(1860-1935): ____ founded Hull House, America's first settlement house, to help immigrants assimilate through education, counseling, and municipal reform efforts. She also advocated pacifism throughout her life, including during World War I, and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
(1832-1899): The writer of dozens of novels for children, ____ popularized the notion of "rags to riches," that by hard work and a bit of a luck, even a poor boy could pull himself up into the middle class.
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947): A leader of the revived women's suffrage movement, ____ served as president of the National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA) from 1900-1904 and again from 1915-1920. She was also active internationally, helping women in other countries gain suffrage and advocating for international peace.
(1809-1882): A British naturalist whose 1859 book On the Origin of Species outlined a theory of evolution based on natural selection, whereby the strongest individuals of a particular species survived and reproduced while weaker individuals died out. This theory had an enormous impact not just on science but on religion and society too, as people wrestled with the challenge evolutionary theory posed to Biblical notions of divine creation and applied the ideas of natural selection to human society.
(1859-1952): A leader of the pragmatist movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, ___ applied the philosophy to education and social reform, advocating "learning by doing" as well as the application of knowledge to solving real life problems. He became an outspoken promoter of social and political reforms that broadened American democracy.
W. E. B. Du Bois
(1868-1963): A Harvard-educated leader in the fight for racial equality, ____ believed that liberal arts education would provide the "talented tenth" of African Americans with the ability to lift their race into full participation in society. From New York, where he was a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), he relentlessly brought attention to racism in America and demanded legal and cultural change. During his long life he published many important books of history, sociology, and poetry and provided intellectual leadership to those advocating civil rights. One of his deepest convictions was the necessity of American blacks connecting their freedom struggle with African independence and he died as a resident of the new nation of Ghana.
William Randolph Hearst
(1863-1951): A newspaper magnate who started by inheriting his father's San Francisco Examiner and ultimately owned newspapers and magazines published in cities across the United States. He was largely responsible for the spread of sensationalist journalism. The ____ Corporation still owns dozens of newspapers, magazines, and other media outlets in the United States and around the world.
(1847-1911): A publisher whose newspapers, including the New York World, became a symbol of the sensationalist journalism of the late nineteenth century.
(1835-1910): A satirist and writer, ___ is best known for his books The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884). His work critiqued American politics and society, especially the racial and economic injustice that he saw in the South and West. ____ traveled abroad extensively and his work was read and loved around the world.
Booker T. Washington
(1856-1915): As head of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, ____ advocated for vocational education for African-Americans so that they could gain economic security. Believing that southern whites were not yet ready for social equality he instead concentrated on gaining economic power for blacks without directly challenging the southern racial order.