Chapter 34 Infection Prevention and Control
|epidemiology||Study of the occurrence, distribution, and causes of disease.|
|iatrogenic infections||Infections caused by a treatment or diagnostic procedure.|
|invasive||Referring to procedures that involve puncture, incision, or insertion of a foreign object, such as a needle or catheter, into the body.|
|localized||With regard to infections, a type of infection in which the infectious process is limited to a particular area, such as a wound infection.|
|microorganisms||Any microscopic entity capable of carrying on living processes, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.|
|phagocytosis||Process by which certain cells, such as macrophages, engulf and dispose of microorganisms.|
|systemic||Of or pertaining to the whole body rather than to a localized area.|
|aerobic||Of or pertaining to the presence of air or oxygen; requiring oxygen for the maintenance of life.|
|anaerobic||Absence of oxygen.|
|asepsis||Absence of germs or microorganisms.|
|bactericidal||Destructive to bacteria.|
|bacteriostasis||State in which the development or reproduction of bacteria is suspended.|
|broad-spectrum antibiotics||Antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of infectious microorganisms.|
|carriers||Animals or persons who harbor and spread a disease-causing organism but who do not become ill.|
|communicable disease||Any disease that can be transmitted from one person or animal to another by direct or indirect contact or by vectors.|
|disinfection||Process of killing pathogenic organisms.|
|endogenous infection||Infection produced within a cell or organism.|
|exogenous infection||Infection originating outside an organ or part.|
|hand hygiene||CDC-recommended approaches for cleansing of the hands involving the use of an instant alcohol hand antiseptic before and after providing client care, hand washing with soap and water when hands are visibly soiled, or performing a surgical scrub.|
|hand washing||Vigorous, brief rubbing together of all surfaces of hands lathered in soap, followed by rinsing under a stream of water.|
|immunocompromised||Abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inadequate.|
|inflammatory response||Protective vascular and cellular reaction that neutralizes pathogens and repairs body cells.|
|leukocytosis||Abnormal increase in the number of circulating white blood cells.|
|medical asepsis||Procedures used to reduce and prevent the spread of microorganisms; also known as clean technique.|
|necrotic||Of or pertaining to the death of tissue in response to disease or injury.|
|normal flora||Microorganisms that live on or within a body to compete with disease-producing microorganisms and provide a natural immunity against certain infections.|
|pathogenicity||Ability of a pathogenic agent to produce disease.|
|sterile field||Specified area, such as within a tray or on a sterile towel, that is considered free of microorganisms.|
|suprainfection||Secondary infection usually caused by an opportunistic pathogen.|
|surgical asepsis||Procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object or area; also known as sterile technique.|
|susceptibility||Condition of being vulnerable to a disease or disorder.|
|vector||Carrier, especially one that transmits disease.|
|virulence||The ability to produce disease.|
|health care-associated infections||A client develops an infection that was not present or incubating at the time of admission.|
|zygote||Fertilized ovum created by the joining of the mother's ovum and father's sperm.|
|nosocomial infection||Infection acquired during hospitalization or during a stay in a health care facility.|
|sterilization||Rendering a person unable to produce children; accomplished by surgical, chemical, or other means.|
|pathogen||Any microorganism capable of producing disease.|
|exudates||Fluid, cells, or other substances that have been slowly discharged from cells or blood vessels through small pores or breaks in cell membranes.|
|granulation tissue||Soft, pink, fleshy projections of tissue that form during the healing process in a wound that is not healing by primary intention.|
|purulent||Producing or containing pus.|
|sanguineous||Fluid containing red blood cells.|
|serous||A clear (like plasma) fluid that forms an exudate at the site of an inflammation.|
|edema||Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues.|
|Asymptomatic||Clinical signs and symptoms are not present|
|Colonization||If microorganism is present or invades a host, grow and/or multiplies but does not cause infection.|
|Cough etiquette||1. Education of health care facility staff, clients' family, and visitors; 2. posters and written material for health care facility or agency staff, clients, families, and visitors; 3. education on how to cover your nose/mouth when you cough, using a tissue, and the prompt disposal of the contaminated tissue; 4. placing a surgical mask on the client if it will not compromise respirtory function or is applicable, which may not be feasible in pediatric populations; 5. hand hygeine after contact with contaminated respiratory secretions; and 6 spatial separation greater than 3 feet away from persons with respiratory infections.|
|Dose||Sufficeint number of organisms|
|Health care-acquired infections||Result from delivery of health services in a health care facility.|
|Host resistance||Susceptibility of the host.|
|Infectious||May not pose a risk for transmission. The illness, although possibly serious for the client, does not pose a risk to others, including caregivers.|
|Standard precautions||Used to prevent and control infection and its spread.|
|Symptomatic||If the pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms.|
|Chain of Infection|| -An infectious agent or pathogen|
-A reservoir or source for pathogen growth
-A portal of exit from the reservoir
-A mode of transmission
-A portal of entry to the host
-A susceptible host
Infection can develop if this chain remains uninterrupted.
|Reservoir||A place where a pathogen can survive but may or may not multiply. To thrive, organisms require a proper environment, including appropriate food, oxygen, water, temperature, ph and light.|
|Portal of exit||After microorganisms find a site to grow and multiply, they must find a portal of exit if they are to enter another host and cause disease. Include sites such as blood, skin and mucous membranes, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, gastrointertinal tract, and transplacental (mother to fetus).|
|Modes of transmission||The major mode of transmission for pathogens in the health care setting is the unwashed hands of the health care worker. Equipment used within the environment. All personnel. Mosquitos.|
|Portal of Entry||Same routes as portal of exit.|
|Course of infection stage||- Incubation period - Interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms.|
- Prodromal Stage - Interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms (malaise, low-grade fever, fatigue) to more specific symptoms
- Illness Stage - Interval when client manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection.
- Convalescence - Interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear.
|Inflammatory response includes|| 1. Vascular and cellular responses.|
2. Formation of inflammatory exudates (flluid and cells that are discharged from cells or blood vessels)
3. Tissue repair
|Key Concepts|| Hand hygeine is the most important technique to use in preventing and controlling transmission of infections.|
The potential for microorganisms to cause disease depends on the number of organisms, virulence, ability to enter and survive in a host, and susceptibility of the host.
| Normal body flora help to resist infection by releasing antibacterial substances and inhibiting multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms.|
The signs of local inflammation and infection are identical.
| An infection can develop as long as the six elements composing the infection chain are uninterrupted.|
Microorganisms are transmitted by direct and indirect contact, by airborne spread, and by vvectors and contaminated articles.
|Increasing age, poor nutrition, stress, inherited conditions, chronic disease, and treatments or conditions that compromise the immune response increase susceptibility to infection.|
The major sites for health care-associated infections include the urinary and respirtory tracts, bloodstream, and surgical or traumatic wounds.
|The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now recommend use of alcohol-based waterless antiseptics as an alternative to hand washing.|
Invasive procedures, medical therapies, long hospitalization, and contact with health care personnel increase a hospitalized client's risk for acquiring a helath care-associated infection.
| Isolation practices may prevent personnel and clients from acquiring infections and may prevent transmission of microorganisms to other persons.|
Standard precautions use generic barrier techniques when caring for all clients.
| Proper cleansing requires mechanical removal of all soil from an object or area.|
A client in isolation is subject to sensory deprivation because of the restricted environment.
|An infection prevention and control professional monitors the incidence of infection within an institution and provides educational and consultative services to maintain infection prevention and control.|
Surgical asepsis requires more stringent techniques than medical asepsis and is directed at eliminating microorganisms.
|If the skin is broken, or if an invasive procedure into a body cavity normally gree of microorganisms is performed, following surgical aseptic practices|