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pages 680-687

smooth and cardiac, glands, metabolism, growth and development, reproductive, circadian rhythms

hormones regulate ___ muscle and some ___, alter ____, spur _____, influence ___ processes and participate in ____

ESTROGEN

the hormone ___ promotes adipose tissue in females

TESTOSTERONE

the hormone ___ promotes muscle tissue in males

TESTOSTERONE, MALES

the hormone ___ enlarges vocal cords in ___

NERVOUS

the ___ system works with the endocrine system to coordinate body function

INTERSTITIAL FLUID, BLOODSTREAM

most hormones enter the ___ and then the ___

NEUROTRANSMITTER, HORMONE

norepinephrine is a ___ when released by postganglionic neurons and a ___ when released by chromaffin cells of adrenal medullae

SLOWER (SEVERAL MINUTES)

responses to the endocrine system are SLOWER/FASTER? than the nervous system.

longer

the effects of the endocrine system last SHORTER/LONGER? than nervous system

is not

the influence of the nervous IS/IS NOT? much broader than the endocrine system

NERVOUS

the___ system targets specific muscles and glands

FAR

hormones are usually released NEAR/FAR? target cell site

INTERSTITIAL FLUID (NOT DUCTS)

endocrine glands secrete their products into ___

DUCTS

exocrine glands secrete their products into ___

CIRCULATORY

endocrine glands depend on the ___ system to distribute their products

IS

the pituitary gland IS/IS NOT? exclusively endocrine system

IS

the thyroid and parathyroid gland IS/IS NOT? exclusively endocrine system

is

the adrenal gland IS/IS NOT? exclusively endocrine system

is

the pineal gland IS/IS NOT? exclusively endocrine system

is not

the thymus IS/IS NOT? exclusively endocrine system

is not

the pancreas IS/IS NOT? exclusively endocrine system

SECRETE

'crino' in endocrinology means to ___

are

protein receptors ARE/ARE NOT? constantly being broken down and made

2,000-100,000

there are how many receptors on a target cell

down

in UP/DOWN? regulation there is excess hormone and the number of receptors decreases

down

in UP/DOWN? regulation the target cell is less sensitive to the hormone

up

in UP/DOWN? regulation there is not enough hormone and the number of receptors increases

hormone, receptors

in down-regulation there is excess ___ and ___ decreases

hormone, receptors

in up-regulation there is not enough ___ and ___ increases

PARACRINE, AUTOCRINE

___ and ___ are two general types of local hormones

near

paracrine hormones act near/far/in the cells that secrete it

in

autocrine hormones act near/far/in the cells that secrete it

paracrine, autocrine

interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a PARACRINE?/ AUTOCRINE?/CURCULATING? hormone

T-HELPER, IMMUNE RESPONSE

interleukin-2 is released by ___ cells in a ___ type reaction

paracrine

nitric oxide (NO) is a PARACRINE?/ AUTOCRINE?/ CURCULATING?

ENDOTHELIAL, RELAXATION, DILATION, INCREASED, LOWER, ERECTION

nitric oxide (NO) is released by ___ cells and causes ___ of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, vaso__, ___ blood flow, ___ blood pressure and ___ of penis

LIVER, KIDNEYS

the ___ (name organ) inactivates circulating hormones and the ___ (name organ) excretes hormones from the body.

INCREASE

in cases of kidney and liver failure hormones may INCREASE/DECREASE? in the body

lipid, thyroid

___ soluble and ___ gland hormones alter gene expression

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