An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Define operational definitions
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. E.g. human intelligence may be operationally defies as what an intelligence test measures.
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants or circumstances.
What are descriptive methods?
Methods that describe behaviors, often using case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observation
What are correlational methods?
Methods that associate different factors
What are experimental methods?
methods that manipulate factors to discover their effects.
What is a case study?
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Whats important to note about case studies?
Individual cases can suggest great ideas, however, we cannot discern the truth of the general due to one extreme case.
What is a survey?
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
What are wording effects?
The effects of subtle changes in wording on surveys or results.
All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
Define random sample
A sample that fairly represent a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Are large or small samples better?
What are naturalistic observations?
Observations or recordings of behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation.
naturalistic observations do not explain behavior... they __________