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5 Matching questions

  1. GENTAMICIN use
  2. CEFTRIAXONE
  3. AMOXICILLIN Contraindictions -
  4. CEFTRIAXONE use
  5. CEFUROXIME
  1. a Action - Binds to the bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell death; Bactericidal action against susceptible bacteria; Similar to that of second-generation cephalosporins, but activity against staphylococci is less, while activity against gram-negative pathogens is greater, even for organisms resistant to first- and second-generation agents. Notable is increased action against. › Acinetobacter.
    › Enterobacter.
    › Haemophilus influenzae (including -lactamase-producing strains).
    › Haemophilus parainfluenzae.
    › Escherichia coli.
    › Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    › Morganella morganii.
    › Neisseria.
    › Proteus.
    › Providencia.
    › Serratia.
    › Moraxella catarrhalis.
    Has some activity against anaerobes, includingBacteroides fragilis .

    Use - Treatment of. › Skin and skin structure infections.
    › Bone and joint infections.
    › Complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections.
    › Uncomplicated gynecological infections including gonorrhea.
    › Lower respiratory tract infections.
    › Intra-abdominal infections.
    › Septicemia.
    › Meningitis.
    › Otitis media.
    Perioperative prophylaxis

    Side Effect - sezures (High doses), pseudomembranous colitis, d/, cholelithaiasis, gallbladder sludging, rashes, urticaria, bleeding, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytosis, pain @ IM site, phlebitis at IV site, anaphylaxis, superinfection

    Contraindictions - Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.
    • Serious hypersensitivity to penicillins.
    • Pedi: Neonates 28 days (use in hyperbilirubinemic neonates may lead to kernicterus).
    • Pedi: Neonates 28 days requiring calcium-containing IV solutions ( risk of precipitation formation).

    Nursing implications- IV; IM; Intermittent infusion

    Trade / Generic Name - Rocephin

    Classification - 3rd Generation cephalosporins; anti-infectives

    Dosage: IM/IV 1-2gm q 12-24hr most infections
    IM 250mg-Gonorehea
    2gm q 12hrs
  2. b Treatment of. Skin and skin structure infections.
    › Bone and joint infections.
    › Complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections.
    › Uncomplicated gynecological infections including gonorrhea.
    › Lower respiratory tract infections.
    › Intra-abdominal infections.
    › Septicemia.
    › Meningitis.
    › Otitis media.
    Perioperative prophylaxis
  3. c Treatment of serious gram-negative bacterial infections and infections caused by staphylococci when penicillins or other less toxic drugs are contraindicated.
    • In combination with other agents in the management of serious enterococcal infections.
    • Prevention of infective endocarditis.
    • Topical, Ophth: Treatment of localized infections due to susceptible organisms.
  4. d Hypersensitivity to penicillins (cross-sensitivity exists to cephalosporins and other beta-lactams). Tablets for oral suspension (DisperMox) contain aspartame
  5. e Action - Binds to bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell death; Bactericidal action against susceptible bacteria. Similar to that of first-generation cephalosporins but has increased activity against several other gram-negative pathogens including. Haemophilus influenzae (including B -lactamase-producing strains) Haemophilus parainfluenzae
    › Escherichia coli.
    › Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    › Neisseria .
    › Proteus.
    › Moraxella catarrhalis.
    › Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Use - Treatment of. Respiratory tract infections, Skin and skin structure infections, Bone and joint infections (IV), Urinary tract infections, Gynecological infections, Septicemia (IV), Otitis media (PO), Meningitis (IV), Lyme disease (PO); Perioperative prophylaxis (IV).

    Side Effect - d/n/v/r; urticaria, diaper dermatitis, seizures (high doses) pseudomembranous colitis, bleeding eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, leucopenia, Pain @ IM site, phlebitis @ IV site, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, superinfection

    Contraindictions - Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins. Serious hypersensitivity to penicillins

    Nursing implications - PO, admin with food; IM/IV, Direct IV, Intermittent infusion

    Trade / Generic Name - Ceftin, zinacef

    Classification - 2nd generation cephalosporins; anti- infectives

    Dosage: PO 250mg q 12hrs- Pharyngitis/tonsillitis, UTI
    250mg-500mg q12- Bronchitis
    IM 750mg q 8hrs UTI
    1.5 q 6hrs- Life threatening infections

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.
    • Serious hypersensitivity to penicillins.
    • Pedi: Neonates 28 days (use in hyperbilirubinemic neonates may lead to kernicterus).
    • Pedi: Neonates 28 days requiring calcium-containing IV solutions ( risk of precipitation formation).
  2. Action- Binds to bacterial cell wall, causing cell death; spectrum of amoxicillin is broader than penicillin. Clavulanate resists action of beta-lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria that is capable of inactivating some penicillins; Bactericidal action against susceptible bacteria(Active against Streptococci. Pneumococci. › Enterococci. Haemophilus influenzae. Escherichia coli. Proteus mirabilis Neisseria meningitidis. N. Gonorrhoeae. Staphylococcus aureus Klebsiella pneumoniae. Shigella Salmonella. Moraxella catarrhalis

    Use- Skin and skin structure infection Otitis media, Sinusitis Respiratory tract infections, Genitourinary tract infections.

    Side Effect - d/v/n/r urticaria, seizures(high doses) pseudomembranous colitis, hepatic dysfunction, vaginal candidiasis, blood dycrasias, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis & serum sickness, superinfection

    Contraindictions - Hypersensitivity to penicillins or clavulanate, Suspension and chewable tablets contain aspartame and should be avoided in phenylketonurics; History of amoxicillin/clavulanate-associated cholestatic jaundice.

    Nursing implications - PO(Administer at the start of a meal to enhance absorption and to decrease GI side effects. Do not administer with high fat meals; clavulanate absorption is decreased.)

    Trade/ Genetric Name - Amoclan, Augmentin, Augmentin ES, Augmentin XR

    Classification - aminopenicillins beta lactamase inhibitors; anti-infectives

    Dosage: PO 250mg q 8hrs
    500mg q 12hrs
  3. Nursing implications - PO, admin with food; IM/IV, Direct IV, Intermittent infusion
  4. Hypersensitivity (cross-sensitivity within class may exist).
    • OB: Do not use unless potential benefit outweighs potential fetal risk.
    • Pedi: Use only for treatment of anthrax and complicated urinary tract infections in children 1-17 years due to possible arthropathy
  5. Action - bind to bacterial cell wall, leading to cell death; Inactivated by penicillinase enzyme; Gram positive aerobic cocci

    Use - Respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, skin & skin structure infections , bone & joint infections, urinary tract infection , endocardistis, bacterium, meningitis

    Side Effects - seizures, Nephritis, urticaria, allergic reaction ; Pain @ IM Site

    Contraindictions - Previous hypersensitivity to penicillin; Cross sensitivity with cephaloporins & beta lactam antibiotics

    Nursing Implications - IM, IV, & intermittent Infusion; Observe for signs & symptoms of anaphylaxis

    Trade / Generic Name - Bactocill

    Classification: Penicillinase resistant penicillins, Anti-infectives

    Dosage:Moderate Infection 250-500mg IM/IV q 4-6hrs
    Serve Infection 1-2gm IM/IV q 4-6hrs

5 True/False questions

  1. CEFTRIAXONE side effects aresezures (High doses), pseudomembranous colitis, d/, cholelithaiasis, gallbladder sludging, rashes, urticaria, bleeding, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytosis, pain @ IM site, phlebitis at IV site, anaphylaxis, superinfection

          

  2. LEVOFLOXACIN side effects are- d/n/v/r; seizures(high doses), pseudomembranous colitis, cramps, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Pruritis, urticaria, leucopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pain at IM site, phlebitis at IV site, anaphylaxis serum sickness, superinfection

          

  3. CIPROFLOXACINAction - Inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase enzyme.; Death of susceptible bacteria; Active against gram-positive pathogens, including. › Staphylococcus aureus.
    › Staphylococcus epidermidis.
    › Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
    › Streptococcus pyogenes.
    › Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    › Enterococcus faecalis.
    › Bacillus anthracis (anthrax).
    • Gram-negative spectrum notable for activity against. › Escherichia coli.
    › Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    › Enterobacter cloacae.
    › Salmonella typhi.
    › Shigella spp.
    › Proteus mirabilis.
    › Proteus vulgaris.
    › Providencia stuartii.
    › Providencia rettgeri.
    › Morganella morganii.
    › Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    › Serratia marcescens.
    › Haemophilus influenzae.
    › Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
    › Moraxella catarrhalis.
    › Campylobacter jejuni.

    Use- PO, IV: Treatment of the following bacterial infections. › Urinary tract and gynecologic infections, including cystitis, gonorrhea, and prostatitis.
    › Respiratory tract infections including acute sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia.
    › Skin and skin structure infections .
    › Bone and joint infections .
    › Infectious diarrhea .
    › Complicated intra-abdominal infections (with metronidazole).
    › Typhoid fever.
    • Post-exposure prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax.
    • Cutaneous anthrax.

    Side Effect - Seizures, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia, agitation, confusion, d/n/r , pseudomembranous colitis, abdominal pain, abnormal liver enzymes, vaginitis, photosensitivity, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, eosinophilia, phlebitits at IV site, tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, anaphylaxis

    Contraindictions - Hypersensitivity (cross-sensitivity within class may exist).
    • OB: Do not use unless potential benefit outweighs potential fetal risk.
    • Pedi: Use only for treatment of anthrax and complicated urinary tract infections in children 1-17 years due to possible arthropathy.

    Nursing implications - PO on empty stomach ; intermittent infusion; observe for s/s of anayphylaxis, monitor bowel function

    Trade / Generic Name - Cipro, Cipro XR, Proquin XR

    Classification - Fluoroquinolones; anti-infectives

    Dosage: PO 500-750 mg q 12hrs
    IV 400 mg q 12 hrs

          

  4. PENICILLIN G or V Nursing Implications- Administer IV / IM = Penicillin G; PO = Penicillin V ; Observe for s/s anaphalxis

          

  5. Pencillin G / V UsePneumocoocal pneumonia; streptoccocal pharyngitis, syphilis, Gonorrhea strains, enterococcal infection; Prevention of rheumatic fever

          

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