Parasitology 1 - Practice Questions

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The dung beetle is an intermediate host for what parasite?

Spirocerca lupi

What adult stage parasite is pink to red in color?

Spirocerca lupi

What parasite causes osteosarcoma, spondylosis and osteopathy?

Spirocerca lupi

What nematode lays an egg that resembles a paperclip?

Spirocerca lupi

Macrolytic lactones are used to treat what parasite?

Spirocerca lupi

What parasite causes dysphagia and regurgitation?

Spirocerca lupi

This parasite causes catarrhal gastritis

Physaloptera spp

What are the intermediate hosts of Physaloptera spp?

Beetles, Cockroaches and Crickets

What parasite has round, dark brown, pitted-shell eggs that are 85 x 75 micrometers?

Toxocara canis

What parasites cause a pot-bellied appearance?

Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina

Which parasite causes visceral larval migrans?

Toxocara canis

How can you differentiate adult stages of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina?

The adult male has a small, finger-like process on its posterior end

What parasite causes hemorrhagic anemia with lassitude?

Ancylostoma caninum

What parasite causes moist eczema with percutaneous infection?

Ancylostoma caninum

What parasite causes cutaneous larval migrans?

Ancylostoma braziliense

What causes interdigital dermatitis?

Uncinaria stenocephala

What parasite has an esophagus that encompasses about 1/3 of its body length?

Stongyloides stercoralis

What parasite has both heterogonic and homogonic life cycles?

Stongyloides stercoralis

What parasite can cause an erythematous reaction (redness of skin) if skin is penetrated by the infective L3?

Strongyloides stercoralis

What parasite causes urticaria and diarrhea?

Strogyloides stercoralis

What is urticaria?

Elevation of the epidermis with wheal formation

What zoonosis can Stongyloides stercoralis and who is most susceptible?

Larvae can penetrate the skin. Those who are immunosuppressed are most at risk

What causes diphtheritic inflammation?

Trichuris spp

What parasites lay eggs that can survive for 3-4 years and become a reservoir for infection?

Trichuris spp

What organ is most affected by infection by Trichuris spp

Cecum

Which parasites have an infective L1 stage?

Trichuris spp, Capillaria spp

What are three predilection sites for Capillaria spp?

Airways, intestinal tract, bladder

What is the largest nematode that infects domestic animals?

Dioctophyme renale

What parasite breaks the rules of its superfamily and how?

Oslerus osleri. Direct L1, while superfamily is Indirect L3

This parasite causes millet seed-like nodules in lung parenchyma.

Oslerus osleri

A heavy infection of what parasite can cause hyperpnea (increased respiration rate)?

Oslerus osleri

What parasite are snails and slugs intermediate hosts for?

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus

What parasite causes a chronic, mild cough?

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus

What parasite can be a persistent problem in kennels?

Oslerus osleri

What type of cestode produces an egg packet?

Dipylidium caninum

Does dipylidium caninum infect only dogs?

No. It also infects cats and humans

For what cestode are the flea and louse intermediate hosts?

Dipylidium caninum

What stage of the flea life cycle is able to ingest the Dipylidium caninum oncosphere?

The larval stage

What anatomical structure do cestodes use to release eggs?

Genital pores

What must a final host ingest in order for an adult cestode to develop?

A larval stage possessing a scolex

For what cestode species are humans an intermediate host?

Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis

Humans get Echinoccocus app from ingesting what?

The oncosphere

Why might you not find Spirocera lupi eggs in the feces?

1. There is a long prepatent period (6 months). 2. There may not be an opening from the granuloma to the esophageal lumen

What parasite can cause pneumonia in puppies?

Toxocara canis

Why is pneumonia a possible clinical sign with infection by Toxocara canis?

Due to hepatic tracheal migration of the larvae

What is the infective stage of Dipylidium caninum?

CysticerCOID

What is the infective stage of Echinococcus granulosus?

Hydatid cyst

What is the infective stage of Echinococcus multilocularis?

Alveolar hydatid cyst

What is the infective stage of Taenia crassiceps?

Cysticercus with ASEXUAL BUDDING

What is the infective stage of Taenia pisiformis?

Cysticercus

What is the infective stage of Taenia taeniaeformis?

Strobilocercus

What is a typical characteristic of a Taeniid egg?

Hexacanth embryo, radial striations

How many eggs does a Dipylidium caninum egg packet contain?

10-20

What are the intermediate hosts of Dipylidium caninum?

Flea, louse

What pathogenesis might be seen in humans that ingest a cysticercus of Taenia crassiceps?

Blindness

How many intermediate hosts does Diphyllobothrium latum have?

2: Copepod crustacean and freshwater fish

What is a scientific name?

Genus and species of a parasite. Like a first and last name

What do we call a parasite that develops in more than one species of host?

Broad host spectrum

What is an example of a broad host spectrum parasite?

Dipylidium caninum

Name examples of body fluids that are used in microscopic identification

Blood, feces, urine, vomitus

Define life cycle

The development of a parasite through various forms

What is the difference between infection and infestation?

Infection is when a parasite infects a host internally while infestation is when an ectoparasite attaches to or occupies a host externally

Define pathogenesis

Development of disease

Name one factor which determines clinical signs of parasite infections

Host response, number of parasites, size of parasite, duration of infection, where infection takes place, how the parasite feeds

Name a diagnostic method used for parasites

Eggs or larva in feces, blood, lymph or urine

List components of treatment and prevention

Parasiticide, management intervention

Which nematode superfamily infects ruminants?

Trichostrongyloidea

List three types of nematode life cycles

Direct L3, Direct L2 in Egg and Indirect (infective L3 or L1)

Which nematode superfamily includes heartworms?

Filaroidea

Which cestodes utilize two intermediate hosts?

Pseudophyllidia

List characteristics of trematodes

Leaf-like, oral and ventral suckers

Which host harbors larval or immature stages of helminth parasites before becoming infective to the final host? Give an example

Intermediate host

Which host harbors parasites but there is no development?

Paratenic

Which parasite infects/infests the host internally?

Endoparasite

What is the name for a disease of animals which is transmissible between animals and humans?

Zoonosis

What is the name of a parasiticide used to treat mites?

Argaside

Name four methods of locomotion for protozoa

Flagella, Cilia, Gliding Motion, Pseudopodia

What is the scientific family for the hard ticks?

Ixodidea

What is the scientific family for the soft ticks?

Argasidae

Name one characteristic of hard ticks

A hard scutum

What gender of tick has a shield that covers the entire dorsal surface?

Male

Which arachnid and which stage has 3 pairs of legs

Larval stage of soft ticks

What is the scientific order for the bugs?

Hemipterra

Phthiraptera refers to which group of insects?

Lice

Gametogony refers to asexual or sexual reproduction?

Sexual

List the types of host for the Spirocerca lupi life cycle

Final, Indirect, Paratenic

List the common sites of infection in the dog caused by Spirocera lupi

Esophagus and stomach

List the nematode parasites recovered from the stomach of dogs

Physaloptera

Why are eggs not found in the feces of some animals infected with Spirocerca lupi?

Two-fold: The PPP is 6 months so they could be infected without eggs forming yet or there may not be openings to the granulomas in the esophagus

How is Spirocerca lupi diagnosed?

Eggs in feces or vomitus

Where and what size is the adult hookworm?

Small intestine. 1-2 cm

What are the modes of infection for Ancylostoma caninum?

1. Per Os 2. Transplacental 2. Transmammary, Paratenic 5. Percutaneous

What stage of Ancylostoma caninum is most harmful?

Adult

One hookworm species causes a more severe zoonotic condition. What condition and what hookworm species is this?

Cutaneous larval migrans - Ancylostoma braziliense

What are the modes of transmission for Strongyloides stercoralis?

1. Homogonic 2. Hetergonic (infective Percutaneous and Per Os) 3. Prenatial 4. Transmammary

What are the clinical signs for Strongyloides stercoralis?

Diarrhea, URTICARIA, erythematous reaction

What is the zoonotic nature of Strongyloides stercoralis?

Larval stages can penetrate the skin, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals

How can veterinarians diagnose Capillaria in a dog or cat?

Bronchial swab, Urine Sample, Fecal Sample

What is the infective stage of Trichuris and Capillaria?

L1 in egg

Which nematode infects the lungs of dogs and cats?

Oslerus osleri

What is the intermediate host of Echinococcus granulosas and what is its larval stage?

Sheep and humans. Larval stage is the HYDATID CYST

What is the final host of Echinococcus granulosus?

Dogs and cats

What is the intermediate host of Echinococcus multilocularis and what is its larval stage?

Equine, ruminants, swine, rodents, humans. Larval stage is the ALVEOLAR HYDATID CYST

What is the final host of Echinococcus multilocularis?

Dogs and wild canids

What is the intermediate host of Dipylidium caninum and what is its larval stage?

Flea or louse. Larval stage is the CYSTCERCOID

What are the final hosts of Dipylidium caninum?

Dogs, cats, humans

What are the second intermediate host and second larval stage of Diphyllobothrium latum?

Second intermediate host is a freshwater fish. Second larval stage is the PLEROCERCOID

Does Spirometra spp infect humans?

Yes, it causes a sparganosis, primarily from eating undercooked frog

Does Diphyllobothrium cause a zoonosis and how?

Yes, by eating undercooked, infected fish

How will you prevent Diphyllobothrium in dogs and cats?

Avoid feeding undercooked fish

What are the 6 "Coathangers"?

Classes Nematoda (Roundworms), Cestoda (Tapeworms), Trematoda (Flukes), Insecta, Archnida and Subkingdom Protozoa

Give 4 characteristics of roundworms

May be free-living or parasitic, sexes are separate (unisexual), shape: UNSEGMENTED, elongated, cylindrical, and alimentary canal IS present

What group of parasites are the most numerous and diverse in veterinary parasitology?

Nematodes (roundworms)

Arthropods are ____ % of all animal species

80%

Trematodes are _____ flattened and often ______.

dorsoventrally, leaf-like

The infective stage of some protozoa is called:

sporozoite

What is a trophozoite?

The stage of a protozoa in the host which feeds and grows until division commences

Trematodes have ______ and ______ suckers

oral, ventral

A sexual stage of reproduction in protozoa is referred to as either _____ or _______.

gametogony, sporogony

A form of asexual reproduction in protozoa is:

schizogony

Asexual reproduction in protozoa is accomplished by:

binary fission

What is the common name of hemiptera?

Bedbugs

Protozoa are _____ , _______ animals

unicellular, eukaryotic

What are 3 general characteristics of arachnids?

4 sets of legs, palps rather than antennae, body divided into cephalo-thorax and abdomen

What are 3 general characteristics of insects?

3 pairs of legs, a single pair of antennae, body divided into head, thorax and abdomen

What are 3 general characteristics of arthropods?

Hard, chitinous exoskeleton, jointed limbs, segmented body

Arthropods (ectoparasites) include what two families?

Insects and Arachnids (ticks and mites)

Trematodes are usually genitally _____.

independent (hermaphroditic)

What are the two families of ticks?

IXODIDAE (hard ticks) and ARGASIDAE (soft ticks)

What is another term for trematodes?

Flukes

Each proglottid of a cestode is genitally __________.

independent (hermaphroditic)

The body, or __________ of a cestode includes head, neck and ______________.

strobila, proglottids

What is the head of a cestode also known as?

Scolex

The scolex has 4 __________ (holdfasts) with or without _________.

suckers, hooks

Describe the body of cestodes

elongated and flat

T/F: Cestodes have an alimentary canal

False

T/F: Nematodes have an alimentary canal

True

What is another term for cestodes?

tapeworms

Sexes are __________ in nematodes

separate (unisexual)

What is the shape of a nematode?

unsegmented, elongated and cylindrical

Nematodes may be ____ - _____ or ________.

free-living, parasitic

What is another term for nematodes?

roundworms

Phylum: nemathelminthes, Class: __________.

nematoda

Phylum platyhelminthes is also known as _________.

flatworms

Phylum platyhelminthes includes what two classes?

cestoda (tapeworms) and trematoda (flukes)

Phylum arthropoda includes what two classes?

insecta (flies, lice, fleas, etc) and arachnida (ticks, mites)

What are two orders of the class cestoda?

cyclophyllidea and pseudophyllidea

What is the common name for diptera? (insecta)

flies

What is the common name for phthiraptera? (insecta)

lice

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