Robert Hooke looked through microscope at plant material. He saw many small pieces. Reminded him of miniature monastery cells. He called them
Smallest sturctural unit of living things. Many living things are simple, consist of one cell. Human body so complex consists of ?? of cells.
are microscopic in size & can only be seen by microscope, vary considerably in size.
phospholipid protiens embedded in phosopholipid. Play important roles in nervous & endocrine systems.
What shapes do cells come in?
FLAT, BRICK SHAPED, THREADLIKE, IRREGULAR
Living matter, a substance that existsw only in cells
Greek. Relationship to a cell. Each cell in body surrounded by a thin membrane, plasma membrane, this separates cell contents from dilute salt water solution.
Tissue fluid bathes every cell in body.
Sm, circular body inside cell.
Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus.
PARTS OF A CELL
Surrounds entire cell forming outer boundary, delicate 7 nanometers or 3/10,000,000 of an inch thick.
All living material except nucleus.
Lg membrane bound structure most cells contain genetic code.
2 layers phosphate containing fat molecules, form framework.
Fat molecule component of plasma membrane. helps stabilize phospholipids molecule to prevent breakage.
Keeps cell whole & intact & other life preserving functions. Well guarded gateway between fluid inside cell & fluid around it. Certain substances can pass through it.
Proteins on outer surface serve as receptors for certain other molecules when contact proteins. Certain molecules bind to certain receptor proteins & change cell function.
Chemicals secreted in blood from ductless glands, bind to membrane receptors & a change in cell function follows. Chemical message communicated to cells by binding to cytoplasmic membrane.
ID's cells. Organ transplant carbohydrate chains attached to surface cells.
Internal living material of cells lies between membrane & nucleus round center cell. Sm structures & fluid in each cell.
Sm structures of cytoplasm little organs, function for cell just as organs for body. So sm invisible when magnified 1000 times by a light microscope electron: ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi appartus, mitochondria, lyosomes, centrioles, cilea, flagella
2 tiny subunits RNA, ribosomal RNA OR rRNA
Temporarily attached network of membranous canals
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Can be free complex function - make enzymes & other proteins compound
System membrane forming network connecting sacs & canals, wind back & forth through cytoplasm, all way from nucleus to membranes, carry proteins & other substances through cytoplasm of cell from one area to another, rough & smooth
fact that many ribosomes attach to outer surface giving it rough texture, like sandpaper, as make protein it may drop in interior ER & transport to areas where chemical processing take place
these areas are so full of ribosomes, do not attach to pass their protein
fats, carbohydrates, proteins made in, makes new membranes for cell.
receives & transports newly made proteins
makes new membrane
tiny flattened sacs stacked near nucleus, little bubbles break off smooth ER & carry new proteins & compounds to sacs of Gogli apparatus
Fuse with gogli & allow contents to mingle.. Chemically processes, packages them into little vesicles that break away from Gogli & move slowly outward to plasma membrane.
Each vesicle fuses w/ plasma membrane, opens outside cell & releases its contents. An example, mucus.
CHEMICAL PROCESSING PACKAGING CENTER
15,000+ fill 2.5 cm or 1 inch long, 2 membrane sacs, one inside another. Inside folds look like mini incomplete partitions. Complex, energy releasing chemical reactions occur constantly.
supply most power, survival depends on mito
molecules promote specific chemical reactions
Enzymes found in walls & inner substance use oxygen to break down glucose & other nutrients to release energy required for cellular work.
AEROBIC OR CELLULAR RESPIRATION
each has own DNA - mitochondrial chromosome information for building & running
Membraneous walls organelles, active stage look like small sacs with tiny particles in them - enzymes digest food compounds.
Destroy microbes enter cell. Help protect cells against destruction.
Programmed cell death - cell suicide- Clears space for new cells
Paired organelles. 2 rod shaped exist in every cell. Right angles to each other. Fine tubules important for cell division.
Extremely find hairlike free surface of some cells. Cell projections capable of movement. One cell may have 100+ cilea capable of moving together wavelike, high special functions. Moving as group in one direction, move nucleus upward over cells line respiratory tract
Single projection extending from cell surface, much larger than cilia. Tail of male sperm cell propulsive movement to make it possible to swim toward ovum
Simple structure, small sphere in central portion of cell - complex & critical role in cell function. It controls every organelle in cytoplasm controls cell reproduction - must function properly for cell to accomplish normal activity & duplicate itself.
2 separate membrane cells material
# of specialized structures
NUCLEOLUS & CHROMATION GRANULES
dense region of nuclear material critical in protein formation programs the formation of ribosomes in the nucleus.